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Qi (Ch’i)

Chinese name
Traditional Chinese

Simplified Chinese

Burmese name
Vietnamese name
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Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic
Mongolian script
ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ

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In normal Chinese culture, qi or ch’i ( ) is believed to be a critical force combining partial of any critical entity.[1][2][page needed][3][page needed]Qi translates as “air” and figuratively as “material energy”, “life force”, or “energy flow”.[4]Qi is a executive underlying member in Chinese normal medicine and in Chinese martial arts. The use of cultivating and balancing qi is called qigong.

There is widespread[quantify] faith in a existence of qi, with believers describing it as a critical appetite whose upsurge contingency be offset for health. Qi is a non-scientific, unverified concept,[4][5] that has never been directly observed, and is separate to a judgment of appetite used in science[6][7][8] (vital appetite is itself an deserted systematic notion).[9]

Linguistic aspects[edit]

The informative keyword is analyzable in terms of Chinese and Sino-Xenic pronunciations. Possible etymologies embody a logographs 氣, 气, and 気 with several meanings trimming from “vapor” to “anger”, and a English loanword qi or ch’i.

Pronunciations and etymologies[edit]

The logograph 氣 is examination with dual Chinese pronunciations, a common 氣 “air; critical energy” and a singular primitive 氣 “to benefaction food” (later disambiguated with 餼).

Pronunciations of 氣 in complicated varieties of Chinese with standardised IPA equivalents include: Standard Chinese /t͡ɕʰi⁵¹/, Wu Chinese qi /t͡ɕʰi³⁴/, Southern Min khì /kʰi²¹/, Eastern Min /kʰɛi²¹³/, Standard Cantonese hei3 /hei̯³³/, and Hakka Chinese hi /hi⁵⁵/.

Pronunciations of 氣 in Sino-Xenic borrowings include: Japanese ki, Korean gi, and Vietnamese khi.

Reconstructions of a Middle Chinese diction of 氣 standardised to IPA transcription include: /kʰe̯iH/ (Bernard Karlgren), /kʰĭəiH/ (Wang Li), /kʰiəiH/ (Li Rong), /kʰɨjH/ (Edwin Pulleyblank), and /kʰɨiH/ (Zhengzhang Shangfang).

Reconstructions of a Old Chinese diction of 氣 standardised to IPA transcription include: /*kʰɯds/ (Zhengzhang Shangfang) and /*C.qʰəp-s/ (William H. Baxter and Laurent Sagart).

The etymology of interconnects with Kharia kʰis “anger”, Sora kissa “move with good effort”, Khmer kʰɛs “strive after; endeavor”, and Gyalrongic kʰɐs “anger”.[10]


In a East Asian languages, has 3 logographs:

  • is a normal Chinese character, Korean hanja, and Japanese kyūjitai (“old impression form”) kanji
  • is a Japanese shinjitai (“new impression form”) kanji
  • is a simplified Chinese character.

In addition, is an odd impression generally used in letter Daoist talismans. Historically, a word was generally created as 气 until a Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), when it was transposed by a 氣 graph simplified with “rice” indicating “steam (rising from rice as it cooks.)”

This primary logograph 气, a beginning created impression for qì, consisted of 3 wavy plane lines seen in Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BCE) seer bone script, Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BCE) bronzeware book and immeasurable sign script, and Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE) tiny sign script. These oracle, bronze, and sign scripts logographs 气 were used in ancient times as a phonetic loan impression to write 乞 “plead for; beg; ask” that did not have an early character.

The immeasurable infancy of Chinese characters are personal as radical-phonetic characters. Such characters mix a semantically revealing “radical characters” with a phonetic member approximating ancient pronunciation. For example, a widely famous word dào “the Dao; a way” graphically combines a “walk” radical 辶 with a shǒu 首 “head” phonetic. Although a complicated dào and shǒu pronunciations are dissimilar, a Old Chinese *lˤuʔ-s 道 and *l̥uʔ-s 首 were alike. The unchanging book impression is surprising since is both a “air radical” and a phonetic, with 米 “rice” semantically indicating “steam; vapor”.

This 气 “air/gas radical” was usually used in a few inner Chinese characters like yīnyūn 氤氲 “thick mist/smoke”, though was also used to emanate new systematic characters for gaseous chemical elements. Some examples are shaped on pronunciations in European languages: 氟 (with a 弗 phonetic) “fluorine” and nǎi 氖 (with a nǎi 乃 phonetic) “neon”. Others are shaped on semantics: qīng 氫 (with a jīng 巠 phonetic, abbreviating qīng 輕 “light-weight”) “hydrogen (the lightest element)” and 氯 (with a 彔 phonetic, abbreviating 綠 “green”) “(greenish-yellow) chlorine”.

氣 is a phonetic member in a few characters such as kài 愾 “hate” with a “heart-mind radical” 忄or 心, 熂 “set glow to weeds” with a “fire radical” 火, and 餼 “to benefaction food” with a “food radical” 食.

The initial Chinese compendium of characters, a Shuowen Jiezi(121 CE) annals that a primary 气 is a pictographic impression depicting 雲气 “cloudy vapors”, and that a full 氣 combines 米 “rice” with a phonetic qi 气, clarification 饋客芻米 “present supplies to guests” (later disambiguated as 餼).


Qi is a polysemous word. The uncondensed Chinese-Chinese impression compendium Hanyu Da Zidian defines it as “present food or provisions” for a diction though also lists 23 meanings for a pronunciation.[11] The complicated ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary, that enters 餼 “grain; animal feed; make a benefaction of food”, and a 氣 entrance with 7 interpretation equivalents for a noun, dual for firm morphemes, and 3 equivalents for a verb.

n. ① air; gas ② smell ③ spirit; vigor; spirit ④ vital/material appetite (in Ch[inese] metaphysics) ⑤ tone; atmosphere; opinion ⑥ annoy ⑦ breath; respiration b.f. ① continue 天氣 tiānqì ② [linguistics] end 送氣 sòngqì v. ① annoy ② get indignant ③ bully; insult.[12]

English borrowing[edit]

Qi was an early Chinese loanword in English. It was romanized as k’i in Church Romanization in a early-19th century, as ch’i in Wade–Giles in a mid-19th century (sometimes misspelled chi omission a apostrophe), and as qi in Pinyin in a mid-20th century. The Oxford English Dictionary entrance for qi gives a diction as IPA (tʃi), a etymology from Chinese “air; breath”, and a clarification of “The earthy life-force presumed by certain Chinese philosophers; a member principle.” It also gives 8 use examples, with a initial available instance of k’í in 1850 (The Chinese Repository),[note 1] of ch’i in 1917 (The Encyclopaedia Sinica),[note 2] and qi in 1971 (Felix Mann’s Acupuncture)[note 3]


References to concepts homogeneous to qi are found in many Asian faith systems. Philosophical conceptions of qi from a beginning annals of Chinese truth (5th century BCE) conform to Western notions of humours, a ancient Hindu yogic judgment of prana, and a normal Jewish judgment of nefesh.[13] An early form of qi comes from a papers of a Chinese philosopher Mencius (4th century BCE).

Within a horizon of Chinese thought, no idea competence achieve such a grade of condensation from experimental information as to conform ideally to one of a complicated judgment concepts. Nevertheless, a tenure qi comes as tighten as probable to combining a general nomination homogeneous to a word “energy”. When Chinese thinkers are reluctant or incompetent to repair a peculiarity of an enterprising phenomenon, a impression qi (氣) fundamentally flows from their brushes.

The ancient Chinese described qi as “life force”. They believed it permeated all and associated their vicinity together. Qi was also associated to a upsurge of appetite around and by a body, combining a cohesive functioning unit. By bargain a stroke and upsurge of qi, they believed they could beam exercises and treatments to yield fortitude and longevity.

Although a judgment has been critical within many Chinese philosophies, over a centuries a descriptions of qi have sundry and have infrequently been in conflict. Until China came into hit with Western systematic and philosophical ideas, a Chinese had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy. Qi and li (理: “pattern”) were ‘fundamental’ categories identical to matter and energy.

Fairly early on[when?], some Chinese thinkers began to trust that there were opposite fractions of qi—the coarsest and heaviest fractions shaped solids, lighter fractions shaped liquids, and a many fragile fractions were a “lifebreath” that charcterised critical beings.[15]Yuán qì is a idea of inherited or prenatal qi that is renowned from acquired qi that a chairman competence arise over their lifetime.

Philosophical roots[edit]

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The beginning texts that pronounce of qi give some indications of how a judgment developed. In a Analects of Confucius qi could meant “breath”.[16] Combining it with a Chinese word for blood (making 血氣, xueqi, blood and breath), a judgment could be used to comment for motivational characteristics:

The [morally] eminent male guards himself opposite 3 things. When he is young, his xueqi has not nonetheless stabilized, so he guards himself opposite passionate passion. When he reaches his prime, his xueqi is not simply subdued, so he guards himself opposite combativeness. When he reaches aged age, his xueqi is already depleted, so he guards himself opposite acquisitiveness.

The philosopher Mozi used a word qi to impute to noxious vapors that would in eventually arise from a stays were it not buried during a sufficient depth.[17] He reported that early courteous humans schooled how to live in houses to strengthen their qi from a dampness that uneasy them when they lived in caves.[17] He also compared progressing one’s qi with providing oneself with adequate nutrition.[17] In courtesy to another kind of qi, he available how some people achieved a kind of conjecture by watching qi (clouds) in a sky.[17]

Mencius described a kind of qi that competence be characterized as an individual’s critical energies. This qi was required to activity and it could be tranquil by a well-integrated willpower.[18][page needed] When scrupulously nurtured, this qi was pronounced to be able of fluctuating over a tellurian physique to strech via a universe.[18] It could also be protracted by means of clever use of one’s dignified capacities.[18] On a other hand, a qi of an particular could be degraded by inauspicious outmost army that attain in handling on that individual.[18]

Living things were not a usually things believed to have qi. Zhuangzi indicated that breeze is a qi of a Earth.[19] Moreover, vast yin and yang “are a biggest of qi.[19] He described qi as “issuing forth” and formulating surpassing effects.[19] He also pronounced “Human beings are innate [because of] a accumulation of qi. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death… There is one qi that connects and pervades all in a world.”[19]

Another thoroughfare traces life to retort between Heaven and Earth: “The top Yin is a many restrained. The top Yang is a many exuberant. The calm comes onward from Heaven. The generous issues onward from Earth. The dual engage and dig combining a harmony, and [as a result] things are born.”[19]

The Guanzi letter Neiye (Inward Training) is a oldest perceived letter on a theme of a cultivation of fog [qi] and imagining techniques. The letter was substantially stoical during a Jixia Academy in Qi in a late fourth century B.C.[20]

Xun Zi, another Confucian academician of a Jixia Academy, followed in after years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says, “Fire and H2O have qi though do not have life. Grasses and trees have life though do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity though do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi.” Chinese people during such an early time had no judgment of eager energy, though they were wakeful that one can be exhilarated by a campfire from a stretch divided from a fire. They accounted for this materialisation by claiming “qi” radiated from fire. At 18:62/122, he also uses “qi” to impute to a critical army of a physique that decrease with modernized age.

Among a animals, a gibbon and a derrick were deliberate experts during inhaling a qi. The Confucian academician Dong Zhongshu (ca. 150 BC) wrote in Luxuriant Dew of a Spring and Autumn Annals:[21] “The gibbon resembles a macaque, though he is larger, and his tone is black. His forearms being long, he lives 8 hundred years, since he is consultant in determining his breathing.” (“猿似猴。大而黑。長前臂。所以壽八百。好引氣也。”)

Later, a syncretic content fabricated underneath a instruction of Liu An, a Huai Nan Zi, or “Masters of Huainan”, has a thoroughfare that presages many of what is given larger fact by a Neo-Confucians:

Heaven (seen here as a ultimate source of all being) falls (duo 墮, i.e., descends into proto-immanence) as a formless. Fleeting, fluttering, penetrating, distorted it is, and so it is called a Supreme Luminary. The dao starts in a Void Brightening. The Void Brightening produces a star (yuzhou). The star produces qi. Qi has bounds. The clear, yang [qi] was fragile and so shaped heaven. The heavy, turbid [qi] was congealed and detained and so shaped earth. The and of a clear, yang [qi] was liquid and easy. The and of a heavy, turbid [qi] was stretched and difficult. So sky was shaped initial and earth was done quick later. The pervading hint (xijing) of sky and earth becomes yin and yang. The strong (zhuan) essences of yin and yang turn a 4 seasons. The diluted (san) essences of a 4 seasons turn a innumerable creatures. The prohibited qi of yang in accumulating produces fire. The hint (jing) of a fire-qi becomes a sun. The cold qi of yin in accumulating produces water. The hint of a water-qi becomes a moon. The essences constructed by coitus (yin) of a object and moon turn a stars and astronomical markpoints (chen, planets).

Role in normal Chinese medicine[edit]

The Huangdi Neijing (“The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine”, circa 2nd century BCE) is historically credited with initial substantiating a pathways, called meridians, by that qi circulates in a tellurian body.[22][23][page needed][24][ISBN missing]

In normal Chinese medicine, symptoms of several illnesses are believed to be possibly a product of disrupted, blocked, and lunatic qi transformation by meridians or deficiencies and imbalances of qi in a Zang Fu organs.[24] Traditional Chinese medicine mostly seeks to soothe these imbalances by adjusting a dissemination of qi regulating a accumulation of techniques including herbology, food therapy, earthy training regimens (qigong, t’ai chi ch’uan, and other martial humanities training),[25][page needed]moxibustion, tui na, or acupuncture.[24]:78

The nomenclature of Qi in a tellurian physique is opposite depending on a sources, roles, and locations[26]. For sources there is a disproportion between supposed “Primordial Qi” (acquired during birth from one’s parents) and Qi acquired via one’s life[26]. Or again Chinese medicine differentiates between Qi acquired from a atmosphere we breathe (so called “Clean Air”) and Qi acquired from food and drinks (so-called “Grain Qi”). Looking during roles Qi is divided into “Defensive Qi” and “Nutritive Qi”[26]. Defensive Qi’s purpose is to urge a physique opposite invasions while Nutritive Qi’s purpose is to yield vital for a body. Lastly, looking during locations, Qi is also named after a Zang-Fu organ or a Meridian in that it resides[26]: “Liver Qi”, “Spleen Qi”, etc.

A qi margin (chu-chong) refers to a cultivation of an appetite margin by a group, typically for recovering or other good purposes. A qi margin is believed to be constructed by cognisance and affirmation. They are an critical member of Wisdom Healing’Qigong (Zhineng Qigong), founded by Grandmaster Ming Pang.[27][28][ISBN missing][29][page needed]

Comparable concepts[edit]

Concepts identical to qi can be found in many cultures.

Religious beliefs[edit]

Prana in Hinduism and Indian culture, chi in a Igbo religion, pneuma in ancient Greece, mana in Hawaiian culture, lüng in Tibetan Buddhism, manitou in a enlightenment of a inland peoples of a Americas, ruah in Jewish culture. In Western philosophy, notions of energeia, élan vital, or vitalism are supposed to be similar.[30]

Some elements of a qi judgment can be found in a tenure ‘energy’ when used in a context of several enigmatic forms of spirituality and choice medicine.[citation needed]

Popular culture[edit]

Elements of a judgment of Qi can also be found in Eastern and Western renouned culture:

  • In a manga Dragon Ball and a video diversion array Tekken, Qi is decorated as something that can be visibly seen.[31]
  • Parallels with Qi can be seen with a judgment of “The Force” in a Star Wars film series[32][page needed] and a associated Jediism, a sacrament shaped on a Jedi.[citation needed]

Scientific view[edit]

Qi is a non-scientific, unverifiable concept.[4]

A 1997 accord matter on pain-killer by a United States National Institutes of Health remarkable that concepts such as qi “are formidable to determine with contemporary biomedical information”.[33]

The 2014 Skeptoid podcast partial patrician “Your Body’s Alleged Energy Fields” associated a Reiki practitioner’s news of what was duty as she upheld her hands over a subject’s body:

What we’ll be looking for here, within John’s auric field, is any areas of heated heat, surprising coldness, a repulsion energy, a unenlightened energy, a magnetizing energy, rawness sensations, or indeed a physique attracting a hands into that area where it needs a reiki energy, and balancing of John’s qi.[5]

Evaluating these claims, author and systematic doubter Brian Dunning reported:

…his aura, his qi, his reiki energy. None of these have any reflection in a earthy world. Although she attempted to news their properties as feverishness or magnetism, those properties are already taken by – well, feverishness and magnetism. There are no properties attributable to a puzzling margin she describes, so it can't be sanctioned pronounced to exist.[5]

Practices involving qi[edit]

Feng shui[edit]

The normal Chinese art of geomancy, a chain and arrangement of space called feng shui, is shaped on calculating a change of qi, interactions between a 5 elements, yin and yang, and other factors. The change or abolition of qi is believed to impact a health, wealth, appetite level, luck, and many other aspects of a occupants. Attributes of any object in a space impact a upsurge of qi by negligence it down, redirecting it or accelerating it. This is pronounced to change a appetite turn of a occupants.

One use for a luopan is to detect a upsurge of qi.[34] The peculiarity of qi competence arise and tumble over time. Feng shui with a compass competence be deliberate a form of prediction that assesses a peculiarity of a inner environment.


Qìgōng (气功 or 氣功) involves concurrent breathing, movement, and awareness. It is traditionally noticed as a use to favour and change qi. With roots in normal Chinese medicine, truth and martial arts, qigong is now used worldwide for exercise, healing, meditation, and training for martial arts. Typically a qigong use involves rhythmic breathing, delayed and stylized movement, a aware state, and cognisance of running qi.[35][page needed][36][37][page needed]

Martial arts[edit]

Qi is a terse judgment in many Chinese, Korean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a underline of both inner and outmost training systems in China[38][page needed] and other East Asian cultures.[39][page needed] The many important of a qi-focused “internal” force (jin) martial humanities are Baguazhang, Xing Yi Quan, T’ai Chi Ch’uan, Southern Praying Mantis, Snake Kung Fu, Southern Dragon Kung Fu, Aikido, Kendo, Hapkido, Aikijujutsu, Luohan Quan, and Liu He Ba Fa.

Demonstrations of qi or ki are renouned in some martial humanities and competence embody a unraisable body, a unbendable arm, and other feats of power. Some of these feats can otherwise be explained regulating biomechanics and physics.[40]

Acupuncture and moxibustion[edit]

Acupuncture is a partial of normal Chinese medicine that involves insertion of needles into extraneous structures of a physique (skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles) during pain-killer points to change a upsurge of qi. This is mostly accompanied by moxibustion, a diagnosis that involves blazing mugwort on or nearby a skin during an pain-killer point.

Taoist passionate practices[edit]

See also[edit]

  • China portal



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  18. ^ a b c d Lau, D. C. (2003). Mencius (Revised ed.). Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. ISBN 9622018513. 
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  21. ^ Guilk, Robert outpost (2015). The Gibbon in China: An Essay in Chinese Animal Lore. E.J. Brill. p. 38. ISBN 7547507395. 
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  23. ^ Veith, Ilza; Rose, Ken (2002). Huang ti nei ching su wên = The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine (New ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520229363. 
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  28. ^ Gu, Mingtong (2009). An Introduction to Wisdom Healing Qigong. Petaluma, California. pp. 30, 46–47. 
  29. ^ Hin, Ooi Kean (2010). Zhineng Qigong: The Science, Theory and Practice. North Charleston, South Carolina: CreateSpace. ISBN 9781453867600. 
  30. ^ Sachs, Joe (2005). “Aristotle: Motion and a Place in Nature”. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002. OCLC 956196260. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  31. ^ Hillard, Kyle (20 Oct 2017). “Developers (And Others) Share Their Appreciation And Dream Games For The Dragon Ball Franchise”. Game Informer. Archived from the original on 21 Oct 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017. 
  32. ^ Porter, John M. (2002). The Tao of Star Wars (1st ed.). Atlanta, Georgia: Humanics. ISBN 9780893343859. 
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  36. ^ Liang, Master Shou-Yu; Wu, Wen-Ching; Breiter-Wu, Denise (1997). Qigong Empowerment: A Guide to Medical, Taoist, Buddhist, and Wushu Energy Cultivation. East Providence, Rhode Island: Way of a Dragon Publishing. ISBN 1889659029. 
  37. ^ Jwing-Ming, Yang (1998). Qigong for Health and Martial Arts: Exercises and Meditation (2nd ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 1886969574. 
  38. ^ Wile, Douglas (1996). Lost T’ai-chi Classics from a Late Ch’ing Dynasty. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780791426548. 
  39. ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate: Teachers, Styles and Secret Techniques. London: A C Black. ISBN 0713656662. 
  40. ^ James, Daniel Arthur (27 Jun 2003). “Unraisable Body: The Physics of Martial Arts” (PDF). Sports Medicine Australia. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Wright, Thomas; Eisenberg, David (1995). Encounters with Qi: Exploring Chinese medicine. New York: Norton hi. ISBN 0-393-31213-5. OCLC 32998368. 
  • Powers, John. (1995). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications. p. 591. ISBN 1-55939-282-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations associated to: Qi

Look adult qi in Wiktionary, a giveaway dictionary.

Main topics

TCM and philosophy

Traditional practices

Qigong forms and styles

Qigong masters

Spiritual movements and politics

Related topics

Article source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qi

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