Energy density

نوشته شده در موضوع تولید انرژی رایگان در 25 مه 2018

Energy density is a volume of appetite stored in a given complement or segment of space per section volume. Colloquially it might also be used for appetite per section mass, nonetheless a accurate tenure for this is specific energy. Often usually a useful or extractable appetite is measured, that is to contend that untouched appetite (such as rest mass energy) is ignored.[1] In cosmological and other ubiquitous relativistic contexts, however, a appetite densities deliberate are those that conform to a elements of a stress–energy tensor and therefore do embody mass appetite as good as appetite densities compared with a pressures described in a subsequent paragraph.

Energy per section volume has a same earthy units as pressure, and in many resources is a synonym: for example, a appetite firmness of a captivating margin might be voiced as (and behaves as) a earthy pressure, and a appetite compulsory to restrict a unenlightened gas a tiny some-more might be dynamic by augmenting a disproportion between a gas vigour and a outmost vigour by a change in volume. In short, vigour is a bulk of a enthalpy per section volume of a system. A vigour slope has a intensity to perform work on a vicinity by converting enthalpy to work until balance is reached.

Introduction to appetite density[edit]

There are many opposite forms of appetite stored in materials, and it takes a sold form of greeting to recover any form of energy. In sequence of a standard bulk of a appetite released, these forms of reactions are: nuclear, chemical, electrochemical, and electrical.

Nuclear reactions are used by stars and chief appetite plants, both of that get appetite from a contracting appetite of nuclei. Chemical reactions are used by animals to get appetite from food, and by automobiles to get appetite from gasoline. Electrochemical reactions are used by many mobile inclination such as laptop computers and mobile phones to recover a appetite from batteries.

Energy densities of common appetite storage materials[edit]

The following is a list of a thermal appetite densities (that is to say: a volume of feverishness appetite that can be extracted) of ordinarily used or obvious appetite storage materials; it doesn’t embody odd or initial materials. Note that this list does not cruise a mass of reactants ordinarily accessible such as a oxygen compulsory for explosion or a appetite potency in use. An extended chronicle of this list is found during Energy density#Extended Reference Table.

The following section conversions might be useful when deliberation a information in a table: 1 MJ ≈ 0.28 kWh ≈ 0.37 HPh.

Energy firmness in appetite storage and in fuel[edit]

In appetite storage applications a appetite firmness relates a mass of an appetite store to a volume of a storage facility, e.g. a fuel tank. The aloft a appetite firmness of a fuel, a some-more appetite might be stored or ecstatic for a same volume of volume. The appetite firmness of a fuel per section mass is called a specific appetite of that fuel. In ubiquitous an engine regulating that fuel will beget reduction kinetic appetite due to inefficiencies and thermodynamic considerations—hence a specific fuel expenditure of an engine will always be larger than a rate of prolongation of a kinetic appetite of motion.

Nuclear appetite sources[edit]

The biggest appetite source by distant is mass itself. This energy, E = mc2, where m = ρV, ρ is a mass per section volume, V is a volume of a mass itself and c is a speed of light. This energy, however, can be expelled usually by a processes of chief production (0.1%), chief alloy (1%),[citation needed] or a obliteration of some or all of a matter in a volume V by matter-antimatter collisions (100%). Nuclear reactions can't be satisfied by chemical reactions such as combustion. Although larger matter densities can be achieved, a firmness of a proton star would estimate a many unenlightened complement able of matter-antimatter obliteration possible. A black hole, nonetheless denser than a proton star, does not have an homogeneous anti-particle form, nonetheless would offer a same 100% acclimatisation rate of mass to appetite in a form of Hawking radiation. In a box of comparatively tiny black holes (smaller than astronomical objects) a appetite outlay would be tremendous.

The top firmness sources of appetite aside from antimatter are alloy and fission. Fusion includes appetite from a object that will be accessible for billions of years (in a form of sunlight) nonetheless so distant (2016), postulated alloy appetite prolongation continues to be elusive. Power from production of uranium and thorium in chief appetite plants will be accessible for many decades or even centuries since of a abundant supply of a elements on earth,[35] nonetheless a full intensity of this source can usually be realised by breeder reactors, that are, detached from a BN-600 reactor, not nonetheless used commercially.[36] Coal, gas, and petroleum are a stream primary appetite sources in a U.S.[37] nonetheless have a most reduce appetite density. Burning internal biomass fuels reserve domicile appetite needs (cooking fires, oil lamps, etc.) worldwide.

Broad implications[edit]

Energy firmness differs from appetite acclimatisation potency (net outlay per input) or embodied appetite (the appetite outlay costs to provide, as harvesting, refining, distributing, and traffic with wickedness all use energy). Large scale, complete appetite use impacts and is impacted by climate, rubbish storage, and environmental consequences.

No singular appetite storage process boasts a best in specific power, specific energy, and appetite density. Peukert’s Law describes how a volume of useful appetite that can be performed (for a lead-acid cell) depends on how fast we lift it out. To maximize both specific appetite and appetite density, one can discriminate a specific appetite firmness of a piece by augmenting a dual values together, where a aloft a number, a improved a piece is during storing appetite efficiently.

Alternative options are discussed for appetite storage to boost appetite firmness and diminution charging time.[38][39][40][41]

Gravimetric and volumetric appetite firmness of some fuels and storage technologies (modified from a Gasoline article):

Note: Some values might not be accurate since of isomers or other irregularities. See Heating value for a extensive list of specific energies of critical fuels.
Note: Also it is critical to realize that generally a firmness values for chemical fuels do not embody a weight of oxygen compulsory for combustion. This is typically dual oxygen atoms per CO atom, and one per dual hydrogen atoms. The atomic weight of CO and oxygen are similar, while hydrogen is most lighter than oxygen. Figures are presented this proceed for those fuels where in use atmosphere would usually be drawn in locally to a burner. This explains a apparently reduce appetite firmness of materials that already embody their possess oxidiser (such as gunpowder and TNT), where a mass of a oxidiser in outcome adds passed weight, and absorbs some of a appetite of explosion to disjoin and acquit oxygen to continue a reaction. This also explains some apparent anomalies, such as a appetite firmness of a sandwich appearing to be aloft than that of a hang of dynamite.

Energy densities ignoring outmost components[edit]

This list lists appetite densities of systems that need outmost components, such as oxidisers or a feverishness penetrate or source. These total do not take into comment a mass and volume of a compulsory components as they are insincere to be openly accessible and benefaction in a atmosphere. Such systems can't be compared with self-contained systems. These values might not be computed during a same anxiety conditions.

Divide joule metre−3 by 109 to get MJ/L. Divide MJ/L by 3.6 to get kWh/L.

Energy firmness of electric and captivating fields[edit]

Electric and captivating fields store energy. In a vacuum, a (volumetric) appetite firmness is given by

U
=

ε

0

2

E

2

+

1

2

μ

0

B

2

{displaystyle U={frac {varepsilon _{0}}{2}}mathbf {E} ^{2}+{frac {1}{2mu _{0}}}mathbf {B} ^{2}}

where E is a electric margin and B is a captivating field. The resolution will be (in SI units) in Joules per cubic metre. In a context of magnetohydrodynamics, a production of conductive fluids, a captivating appetite firmness behaves like an additional vigour that adds to a gas vigour of a plasma.

In normal (linear and nondispersive) substances, a appetite firmness (in SI units) is

U
=

1
2

(

E

D

+

H

B

)

{displaystyle U={frac {1}{2}}(mathbf {E} cdot mathbf {D} +mathbf {H} cdot mathbf {B} )}

where D is a electric banishment margin and H is a magnetizing field.

See also[edit]

  • Energy firmness Extended Reference Table
  • High Energy Density Matter
  • Power firmness and specifically
    • Power-to-weight ratio
  • Orders of bulk (specific energy)
  • Figure of merit
  • Energy calm of biofuel
  • Heat of combustion
  • Heating value
  • Rechargeable battery
  • Specific impulse
  • Food energy
  • Energy portal

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ “The Two Classes of SI Units and a SI Prefixes”. NIST Guide to a SI. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  2. ^ J. D. Huba. “NRL Plasma Formulary (revised 2016)” (PDF). Naval Research Laboratory. p. 44. Retrieved 2017-05-16. 
  3. ^ a b “Computing a appetite firmness of chief fuel”. whatisnuclear.com. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  4. ^ http://www.exxonmobilaviation.com/AviationGlobal/Files/WorldJetFuelSpec2008.pdf
  5. ^ Wilfred Weihe “Electric Fireplace Costs Secrets”
  6. ^ Lu, Gui-e; Chang, Wen-ping; Jiang, Jin-yong; Du, Shi-guo (May 2011). “Study on a Energy Density of Gunpowder Heat Source”. 2011 International Conference on Materials for Renewable Energy Environment. IEEE. doi:10.1109/ICMREE.2011.5930549. Retrieved 13 April 2018. 
  7. ^ “Overview of lithium ion batteries” (PDF). Panasonic. Jan 2007. Archived (PDF) from a strange on Nov 7, 2011. 
  8. ^ “Panasonic NCR18650B” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-22. 
  9. ^ [7][8]
  10. ^ a b “Energizer EN91 AA alkaline battery datasheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  11. ^ a b “Maxwell supercapacitor comparison” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  12. ^ a b “Nesscap ESHSP array supercapacitor datasheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  13. ^ a b “Cooper PowerStor XL60 array supercapacitor datasheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  14. ^ a b “Kemet S301 array supercapacitor datasheet” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  15. ^ a b “Nichicon JJD array supercapatcitor datasheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  16. ^ a b “skelcap High Energy Ultracapacitor” (PDF). Skeleton Technologies. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  17. ^ [11][12][13][14][15][16]
  18. ^ [11][12][13][14][15][16]
  19. ^ a b “Vishay STE array tantalum capacitors datasheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  20. ^ “nichicon TVX aluminum electrolytic capacitors datasheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  21. ^ “nichicon LGU aluminum electrolytic capacitors datasheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  22. ^ [19][20][21]
  23. ^ a b “Battery Energy Tables”. 
  24. ^ “18650 Battery capacities”. 
  25. ^ “Calories in Lay’s Classic Potato Chips”. CalorieKing. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  26. ^ “Calories in Ham And Cheese Sandwich”. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  27. ^ “Green Power Lacks a Energy Density to Run Our Civilization, LENR Might Provide It.” LENR Cold Fusion News. N.p., 24 Jul 2014. Web.
  28. ^ Jeong, Goojin, et al. “Nanotechnology enabled rechargeable Li–SO 2 batteries: another proceed towards post-lithium-ion battery systems.” Energy Environmental Science 8.11 (2015): 3173-3180.
  29. ^ “Panasonic Develops New Higher-Capacity 18650 Li-Ion Cells.” Green Car Congress. N.p., 25 Dec. 2009. Web.
  30. ^ Stura, Enrico, and Claudio Nicolini. “New nanomaterials for light weight lithium batteries.” Analytica chimica acta 568.1 (2006): 57-64.
  31. ^ “Energy Density of Coal – Hypertextbook.” The Energy Density of Coal. N.p., 2003. Web.
  32. ^ “Heat Values of Various Fuels – World Nuclear Association.” World Nuclear Association. N.p., Sept. 2016. Web.
  33. ^ “Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program.” Office of Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy. N.p., May 2000. Web.
  34. ^ Wong, Kaufui Vincent and Dia, Sarah, “Nanotechnology in Batteries.” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2016.
  35. ^ “Supply of Uranium”. world-nuclear.org. 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2015-06-13. 
  36. ^ “Facts from Cohen”. Formal.stanford.edu. 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  37. ^ “U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) – Annual Energy Review”. Eia.doe.gov. 2009-06-26. Archived from the original on 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  38. ^ Ionescu-Zanetti, C.; et., al. (2005). “Nanogap capacitors: Sensitivity to representation permittivity changes”. 99 (2). Bibcode:2006JAP….99b4305I. doi:10.1063/1.2161818. 
  39. ^ Naoi, K.; et., al. (2013). “New era “nanohybrid supercapacitor“. Accounts of Chemical Research. doi:10.1021/ar200308h. 
  40. ^ Hubler, A.; Osuagwu, O. (2010). “Digital quantum batteries: Energy and information storage in nanovacuum tube arrays”. Complexity. 15 (5). doi:10.1002/cplx.20306. 
  41. ^ Lyon, D.; et., al. (2013). “Gap distance coherence of a dielectric strength in nano opening gaps”. : IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 2 (4). doi:10.1109/TDEI.2013.6571470. 
  42. ^ a b c College of a Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, Dec 2001 Hydrogen Properties. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
  43. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997), Chemistry of a Elements (2nd ed) (page 164)
  44. ^ “Boron: A Better Energy Carrier than Hydrogen? (28 Feb 2009)”. Eagle.ca. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  45. ^ a b c d Envestra Limited. Natural Gas Archived 2008-10-10 during a Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  46. ^ a b c d e IOR Energy. List of common acclimatisation factors (Engineering acclimatisation factors). Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  47. ^ a b c d e Paul A. Kittle, Ph.D. “ALTERNATE DAILY COVER MATERIALS AND SUBTITLE D – THE SELECTION TECHNIQUE” (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  48. ^ “537.PDF” (PDF). Jun 1993. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  49. ^ “Energy Density of Aviation Fuel”. Hypertextbook.com. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  50. ^ Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Barrett, Christopher J.; Liu, Zhen Y.; Dumesic, James A. (21 Jun 2007). “Production of dimethylfuran for glass fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates”. Nature. 447 (7147): 982–985. doi:10.1038/nature05923. Retrieved 13 April 2018. 
  51. ^ Justin Lemire-Elmore (2004-04-13). “The Energy Cost of Electric and Human-Powered Bicycles” (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 2009-02-26. properly lerned contestant will have efficiencies of 22 to 26% 
  52. ^ a b Fisher, Juliya (2003). “Energy Density of Coal”. The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  53. ^ Silicon as an surrogate between renewable appetite and hydrogen
  54. ^ “Elite_bloc.indd” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  55. ^ “Biomass Energy Foundation: Fuel Densities”. Woodgas.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  56. ^ “Bord na Mona, Peat for Energy” (PDF). Bnm.ie. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  57. ^ Justin Lemire-Elmor (April 13, 2004). “The Energy Cost of Electric and Human-Powered Bicycle” (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  58. ^ “energy buffers”. Home.hccnet.nl. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  59. ^ Anne Wignall and Terry Wales. Chemistry 12 Workbook, page 138 Archived 2011-09-13 during a Wayback Machine.. Pearson Education NZ ISBN 978-0-582-54974-6
  60. ^ Mitchell, Robert R.; Betar M. Gallant; Carl V. Thompson; Yang Shao-Horn (2011). “All-carbon-nanofiber electrodes for high-energy rechargeable Li–O2 batteries”. Energy Environmental Science. 4: 2952–2958. doi:10.1039/C1EE01496J. 
  61. ^ David E. Dirkse. energy buffers. “household rubbish 8..11 MJ/kg”
  62. ^ “Technical circular on Zinc-air batteries”. Duracell. Archived from the original on 2009-01-27. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  63. ^ C. Knowlen, A.T. Mattick, A.P. Bruckner and A. Hertzberg, “High Efficiency Conversion Systems for Liquid Nitrogen Automobiles”, Society of Automotive Engineers Inc, 1988.
  64. ^ “Hydroelectric Power Generation”. www.mpoweruk.com. Woodbank Communications Ltd. Retrieved 13 April 2018. 
  65. ^ “2.1 Power, discharge, conduct attribute | River Engineering Restoration during OSU | Oregon State University”. rivers.bee.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 13 April 2018. Let ε = 0.85, signifying an 85% potency rating, standard of an comparison powerplant. 

External links[edit]

Density data[edit]

  • ^ “Aircraft Fuels.” Energy, Technology and a Environment Ed. Attilio Bisio. Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995. 257–259
  • Fuels of a Future for Cars and Trucks” – Dr. James J. Eberhardt – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy – 2002 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop San Diego, California – Aug 25–29, 2002

Energy storage[edit]

Books[edit]

  • The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins by Alan H. Guth (1998) ISBN 0-201-32840-2
  • Cosmological Inflation and Large-Scale Structure by Andrew R. Liddle, David H. Lyth (2000) ISBN 0-521-57598-2
  • Richard Becker, “Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions”, Dover Publications Inc., 1964

Quantity

See also

Related

  • Book
  • Category
  • Science portal


Article source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

*

code