Perpetuum Mobile / Machines that were indeed built

نوشته شده در موضوع تولید انرژی رایگان در 24 فوریه 2018

About Project-Makers

A essential contention of a machines from a 16th to 18th century must
not be formed on today’s believe of scholarship and technology. We have to consider
that during those times there was a good series of ideas that still has
effect today. But a change of comparison concepts of alchemy, astrology etc.
was still crafty and decreased slowly. Many things that are regarded as
ridiculous today, seemed plausible. And many ideas that were considered
to be perpetually out of man’s strech now are an everyday’s believe like the
flight by a assist of machines.

This was a soil, into that a seed of incessant machines fell and sometimes
grew to substantial frauds. A settlement of a conditions gives Zedler’s
Universallexikon
(1756), cited in the
Propyläen Technikgeschichte: “Such
project makers dauntless contacting high persons, and a apportion has to apply
all caring to try if his emperor is into business with an honest man
or a fraud…”1)
(vol. 3, p 256).

The Rolling-Ball Machine

William Sommerset, Marquis of Worcester (1612-1667), was one of a prominent
persons during his time. 1638 he suggested to his king, Charles I, a construction
of a enormous incessant suit machine. It consisted of a circle of around
4m diameter. At a periphery, it had 40 chambers, any containing an unbalanced
mass of 50 pounds. The device was presented to aristocrat and court, and Sir
William resolved section 56 of his book Century of
Inventions
2): “be gratified to judge
the consequences”, withdrawal a critical fact open if he simply wanted
to keep his reader bustling with analysing a machine.

Overbalanced circle on that Leupold formed his analysis
and explanation of a stupidity of incessant motion

Johann Jacob Leupold
(22. June 1674 – 12. Jan. 1727) analysed a
similar apparatus in his encyclopaedic work Theatrum mechanicum
machinarum
and came to a conclusion: “with one bruise one can keep one
pound in equilibrum, though never pierce it.” About Leupold and his categorical opus,
Theatrum Machinarum a library of a Deutsches Museum
in Munich has supposing a vast content on their site.

Successful Marketing

  
This lady is Johann Ernst Elias Bessler (1680-1745). With his artist’s
name Orffyreus he done carreer and wrote a section in a history
of technology. Bessler was an zodiacally skilled, though fluid male who rarely
kept stability a work for a longer duration of of time, so frequently lacking
money. But Bessler was intelligent, schooled fast and he was an eloquent
speaker. So he accepted utterly good to get his advantages out of every
situation. At a time, when German rulers used to occupy court’s mechanicians
and alchemists (often with a goal to fill their possess purse), Bessler
captivated pleasantness in 1715 as he presented an apparently operative perpetual
suit appurtenance to a public. In 1716, Landgrave Karl of Hessen-Kassel got
meddlesome in a machine, and a German mathematician and philosopher Leibniz
endorsed to entice Bessler, who followed a invitation. Landgrave Karl
supposing a vast room in his Weissenstein palace where Bessler built a larger
representation of his appurtenance and set it into motion. The room was hermetic and the
doors sealed. As it was re-opened after a fourty-day period, a machine
still kept using during unvaried speed.

Even potentate Peter a good grown transparent seductiveness in Bessler’s perpetual
motion appurtenance and designed to transport to Germany in 1725 in sequence to have
a demeanour during a apparatus and maybe to buy it. The potentate ordered a scientific
check and purchasing negociations. Orffyreus demanded a unheard amount
of 100000 talers for his machine. The czar’s black genocide runined a sale.

A clearer sense of a appurtenance give a few woodcuts Bessler published
in his book Perpetuum mobile triumphans (Kassel 1719). How a device
worked can't be resolved from a illustrations.

Meanwhile, Bessler-Orffyreus was being named councillor by Landgrave Karl
and enjoyed his celebrity to be a usually contriver of a genuine incessant suit machine.

In all a years of a machine’s existence, there were supporters and opponents
of Orffyreus’ apparatus. Leibniz not being assured of a incessant motion
idea gave a acknowledgement “Qrffyreus est des mes amis” (“Orffyreus is amongst
my friends” Klemm, S.16). Other scholars
thought a contriver should be rewarded in sequence to get a peek into the
inner resource of a machine. And there were others who regarded a whole
story as a enormous fraud. Bessler authorised usually a landgrave to sight into
the appurtenance and he testified that it was a genuine incessant suit machine.
Today, a engineering skills of souvereigns are rather regarded as being
elementary.

The story finished with a admission of a lassie who kept a appurtenance turnig
from a adjacent room. She worked in shifts with Bessler’s mother and brother
being feeble paid with 2 pennies per hour. In a nutshell: Bessler was a fraud.
At a start of a 18th century, there used to be frequency forgiveness with frauds
who hoodwinked their souvereigns, that is simply seen during a instance of
Cajetano a gold-maker, who in 1709 was “raised” – during a gallows.

But a warn happend. By utterance and crafty arguing, Besser escaped
the landgrave’s fury and even succeeded in gripping his good will. When the
landgrave died, Bessler mislaid loyalty and shelter, though not his life. The
legend reports that Bessler damaged his work with his possess hands.

Revealing is a web of reports and consultant evidence, of machines analysises
and distrust. There were plots and attemps to disprove a inventor, as
well as opinions to support his work.
‘s Gravesande, who was a good
researcher, settled Bessler’s circle to be a loyal incessant suit machine.
After a rascal was uncovered, he had tough work to rescue his reputation
and argued “I know good that Orffyreus is a crackpot, though we don’t believe
he is a fraud. we have never motionless that his appurtenance is fraud, though we know
one thing for sure: if a lassie sais this, she is a
liar.”3) (translated from
Michal, p.111)

Leibniz, intelligent adequate to keep divided from a whole events, suggested to learn
from a mechanisn. He refused a explanation of a genuine PMM. Survived have several
reports that state that a circle changed though manifest outmost energy
source, a maid’s created promise (cf.
Michal, p.110) and a believe that
Bessler took a tip of his machines into a grave. A useful internet
information resouce is a site
http://www.besslerwheel.com.

There seems no final conclusion. The finish of a whole story still is open
and a contention around Bessler is still ongoing. A elementary internet research
with one of a vast hunt engines delivers thousands of references which
are connected in some proceed to Bessler. Around 30 of them uncover reasonable effort
to proceed his work and publishings. Most authors state Bessler has been
victim of a circumstances, carrying been contriver of a genuine incessant motion
machine. The lassie of march had brought her employer into bad reputation
by lies. we ask a readers to pull their possess conclusions; some references
can be found in my linklist.

 The La Chaux-de-Fonds Perpetuum Mobile

Hundred years after Bessler’s death, a unequivocally decently done incessant clock
attracted a a attention. At la Chaux-de-Fonds in Switzerland, a travelling
clockmaker named David Robert Geiser
(-1817)4) presented a clockwork that
he claimed to be a genuine incessant device. It seemed to be powered by an arabian
wheel of 11/2ft diameter, that had 39 arms during a rim,
each containing a formidable trigger mechanism. The time was messy and
inspected several times by specialists, though nothing of them found any concealed
source of power. So eventually, somebody unequivocally had succeeded in building
a PMM?

After Geiser’s early death, a clockwork was legalised again. This time,
a unequivocally clever research suggested a fraud. In one of a columns that supported
the dial, a examiners found a dark missile heading to a open in a base
of a clock. The open could be wound by detaching a seconds hand. After
removing a hand, a four-cournered spindle got permitted that onto wich a
wind-key fitted. In fact, a time was an superb masterpiece – but
no incessant suit machine.

 “Modern” Mechanics

In 1870, Charles Batchellor got a appurtenance law that was done adult of
cog-wheels, levers and excentric weights. It’s conspicuous that he got a patent
at all, though infrequently absurd constructions trip by a obvious examiners’
attention. we discuss this apparatus since it contains all vital construction
features of a inclination given by
Würth and
Evert. So even “modern” ideas had
their predecessors 130 years ago.

 The Keely Motor Company


By pleasantness of

D. Simanek

   
In 1872, Mr John Worrell Keely (1837-1898) who was carpenter and mechanician
during Philadelphia presented his find to beget appetite out of a ether
by a moving tunig fork. Keely started experiments to find out how to tap
this appetite in incomparable scale and renovate it into useful work. Ether therories
started to be unequivocally select some decades before a spin of a century,
as a speculation of light was not unequivocally grown during that time. The many common
opinion was that light needs a middle to spread. Compared with spreading
of H2O waves, this seemed to be a possibly hypothesis. After Michelson
and Morley’s intereferometric experiments, this supposition failed. However,
even today’s supporters of giveaway appetite machines do not caring unequivocally many about
this result…

Keely invented a few machines and founded a Keely Motor Company
at New York. Twelve categorical shareholders contributed a substantial sum of
1 million $, in sequence to get Keely’s ideas grown and remade into
commercial products. Keely publicly presented his initial “etheric” generator
in Philadelphia. In a good show, he demonstrated a considerable appetite of
his apparatus. Keely said, his machines will make all required motors
obsolete.

Keely done all his experiments by himself and built a vast apportionment of all
his apparatus with his possess hands. He authorised nobody to check his machines,
which caused early supicion that he used astray methods. It was impossible
to find out, how his maches worked. Keely done presentations though he insisted
that no scientists or technicians participated.

One fact caused sold suspicion: a machines usually worked afterwards Keely
was around.

Keely’s hydro-pneumatic tapping vacuo engine
By pleasantness of

D. Simanek

The press became interested, though Keely still could not be changed to give
explanations. The well-reputed repository Scientific American wrote about Keely’s
work with disastrous and partly scathing comments. The shareholders’ interest
considerably decreased after several delays when Keely still was incompetent to
present a commercially serviceable machine. Fortunately, before he was doomed
to go bankrupt, Keely could remonstrate a abounding widow, Mrs. Bloomfield-Moore
to unite his stability effort. However, he continued to fail.

An electrical operative had a event to see one of a machines which
were claimed to be formed on electrical priciples. In an unobserved moment,
he grabbed an accidentially remaining square of handle from a floor. The wire
was found to be a glorious pipe! This was new support for a guess that
Keely powered his machines by dense atmosphere delivered by a secluded compressor
and pipework. After this came up, even Mrs. Bloomfield-Moore did no longer
really trust in Keely and extremely reduced her payings.

After Keely’s death, many machines were taken divided by meddlesome persons
who might have hoped in eventually removing success out of Keely’s preparational
work. Mrs. Bloomfield-Moore’s son, an operative and a series of extraordinary reporters
investigated a inventors residence and detected conealed pipes in apparently
massive columns and double floors. In a attic they found a vale concrete
sphere of 3 tons weight; apparently a vigour reservoir. The fountainhead was
filled by a silent-running compressor driven by a H2O motor. Posthumously,
Keely was unclosed as rascal who kept his business using for 26 years,
without finishing or offered a singular machine. The
Encyclopaedia Britannica concludes
the incessant suit article: “In a march of his prolonged career Keely may
have damaged a series of laws, though he left a initial and second law of
thermodynamics […] inviolate.” (Macropeadia vol.14, p.105 left col.)

Very engaging are a parallels to Bessler. Although astray methods were
uncovered, there still is a dauntless village of supporters who consider that the
master knew about a tip of incessant motion. The enigmatic blabla of
course is a inventive prophecy of today’s complicated atom theories!

 The Radium Clock

In 1903 a certain William Strutt demonstrated a marvellous elementary “machine”.
It was an electroscope that contained a little volume of radium. This William
Strutt (12.11.1842 – 30.7.1919) had to be taken serious, as he was not a
harebrained inventor, though a well-reputed physicist famous as glorious researcher.
He won a Nobel esteem 1904 and became a 3rd Lord Rayleigh due to his great
merits for a science.
The problem was: a apparatus worked.

red: radium
green: skinny steel sheets
blue: electrical belligerent connection

The vessel was done of quartz potion and evacuated in sequence to minimize the
influence of atmosphere insurgency and unintended electrical conduction. The radiation
charged a leaves of a electroscope. As charged objects of a same polarity
repel, a leaves widespread until they overwhelmed a belligerent tie during the
sides of a vessel. By this, they liberated and a whole routine started
again. When being celebrated over a longer duration of time, no change in the
frequency of a operation could be measured. Even a excellent beam did
not uncover any change in weight of a whole apparatus. Was this a long-searched
perpetual suit device?

No. The little volume of appetite that is indispensable to keep a electroscope running,
could not means a weighable detriment of mass. This fact became transparent with Einstein’s
famous regulation E = mc2. The electroscope conundrum was
solved, when traces of helium were found in a quartz vessel. Helium atoms
are recombined alpha particles that are generated by a physics of the
highy hot radium. As alpha particles are electric posive, they caused
the greeting of a electroscope.

However, a radium time would run extremely longer than a thousand years,
thus entrance flattering tighten to a thought of a incessant suit machine.


Remarks:

1. Original German text: “Solche Projectemacher
wagen sich öfters an hohe Häupter, und shawl ein Minister hierbey
alle Behutsamkeit anzuwenden, daß er erforsche ob sein Landes-Herr
mit einem ehrlichen Manne oder einem Betrüger zu tun habe…”
2. William Somerset’s book has a full title:
A Century of a Names and Scantlings of such Inventions, As at
present we can call to mind to have attempted and perfected, that (my former
notes being lost) we have, during a instance of a absolute friend, endeavoured
now in a Year 1655, to set these down in such a proceed as might suffieciently
instruct me to put any of them in practice
. Printed by J. Grismond, London
1663. In section 56, Somerset describes his overbalanced wheel, though giving
an image. The initial famous picture was a reformation given by Desaguliers
in 1720. The full content of a book is accessible in
Henry
Dircks’s commented edition
during a online library pages of a university
of Rochester
3. Original German text: “Ich weiß wohl, daß
Orffyreus verrückt, aber ich glaube nicht, daß er ein Betrüger
ist. Ich habe mich niemals dafür entschieden, ob seine Maschine ein
Betrug ist, aber eins weiß ich, wie nur irgend etwas in der Welt: wenn
die Dienstmagd das obige sagt, dann lügt sie.”
4. The conditions is unclear. According to different
sources, a time was built by Jean and David Geiser in Neuchatel in
1815.


Article source: http://www.hp-gramatke.net/perpetuum/english/page0040.htm

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