Electric motor

نوشته شده در موضوع تولید انرژی رایگان در 07 نوامبر 2017

An electric motor is an electrical appurtenance that translates electrical appetite into automatic energy. The retreat of this is a acclimatisation of automatic appetite into electrical appetite and is finished by an electric generator, that has many in common with a motor.

Most electric motors work by a communication between an electric motor’s captivating margin and circuitous currents to beget force. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors in a travel industry, electric motors can also be used in retreat as generators to modify automatic appetite into electric power.

Found in applications as opposite as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, appurtenance tools, domicile appliances, appetite tools, and hoop drives, electric motors can be powered by approach stream (DC) sources, such as from batteries, engine vehicles or rectifiers, or by swapping stream (AC) sources, such as from a appetite grid, inverters or generators. Small motors competence be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with bulk standardised measure and characteristics yield accessible automatic appetite for industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for vessel propulsion, tube focus and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors competence be personal by electric appetite source type, inner construction, application, form of suit output, and so on.

Electric motors are used to furnish linear or rotary force (torque), and should be renowned from inclination such as captivating solenoids and loudspeakers that modify electricity into suit though do not beget serviceable automatic powers, that are respectively referred to as actuators and transducers.

History[edit]

Early motors[edit]

Perhaps a initial electric motors were elementary electrostatic inclination combined by a Scottish priest Andrew Gordon in a 1740s.[2] The fanciful component behind prolongation of automatic force by a interactions of an electric stream and a captivating field, Ampère’s force law, was detected after by André-Marie Ampère in 1820. The acclimatisation of electrical appetite into automatic appetite by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by a English scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging hoop was dipped into a pool of mercury, on that a permanent magnet (PM) was placed. When a stream was upheld by a wire, a hoop rotated around a magnet, display that a stream gave arise to a tighten round captivating margin around a wire.[3] This engine is mostly demonstrated in prolongation experiments, brine substituting for poisonous mercury. Though Barlow’s round was an early excellence to this Faraday demonstration, these and matching homopolar motors were to sojourn unsuited to unsentimental focus until late in a century.

In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils. After Jedlik solved a technical problems of a continual revolution with a invention of a commutator, he called his early inclination “electromagnetic self-rotors”. Although they were used customarily for enlightening purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated a initial device to enclose a 3 categorical components of unsentimental DC motors: a stator, rotor and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as a captivating fields of both a still and revolving components were assembled customarily by a currents issuing by their windings.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Success with DC motors[edit]

After many other some-more or reduction successful attempts with partially diseased rotating and reciprocating apparatus a Prussian Moritz von Jacobi combined a initial genuine rotating electric engine in May 1834 that indeed grown a conspicuous automatic outlay power. His engine set a universe record, that was softened customarily 4 years after in Sep 1838 by Jacobi himself.[12] His second engine was absolute adequate to expostulate a vessel with 14 people opposite a far-reaching river. It was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of matching and after also of aloft performance.

The initial commutator DC electric engine means of branch appurtenance was invented by a British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832.[13] Following Sturgeon’s work, a commutator-type direct-current electric engine finished with a goal of blurb use was built by a American contriver Thomas Davenport, that he law in 1837. The motors ran during adult to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered appurtenance collection and a copy press.[14] Due to a high cost of primary battery power, a motors were commercially catastrophic and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in a growth of DC motors though all encountered a same battery appetite cost issues. No electricity chain had been grown during a time. Like Sturgeon’s motor, there was no unsentimental blurb marketplace for these motors.[15]

In 1855, Jedlik built a device regulating matching beliefs to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors that was means of useful work.[5][11] He built a indication electric car that same year.[16]

A vital branch indicate in a growth of DC machines took place in 1864, when Antonio Pacinotti described for a initial time a ring armature with a symmetrically grouped coils sealed on themselves and connected to a bars of a commutator, a brushes of that delivered many non-fluctuating current.[17][18] The initial commercially successful DC motors followed a invention by Zénobe Gramme who, in 1871, reinvented Pacinotti’s design. In 1873, Gramme showed that his hustler could be used as a motor, that he demonstrated to good outcome during exhibitions in Vienna and Philadelphia by joining twin such DC motors during a stretch of adult to 2 km divided from any other, one as a generator.[19] (See also 1873 : l’expérience décisive [Decisive Workaround] .)

In 1886, Frank Julian Sprague invented a initial unsentimental DC motor, a non-sparking engine that confirmed partially consistent speed underneath non-static loads. Other Sprague electric inventions about this time severely softened grid electric chain (prior work finished while employed by Thomas Edison), authorised appetite from electric motors to be returned to a electric grid, supposing for electric chain to trolleys around over wires and a trolley pole, and supposing controls systems for electric operations. This authorised Sprague to use electric motors to invent a initial electric trolley complement in 1887–88 in Richmond VA, a electric conveyor and control complement in 1892, and a electric transport with exclusively powered generally tranquil cars, that were initial commissioned in 1892 in Chicago by a South Side Elevated Railway where it became popularly famous as a “L”. Sprague’s engine and compared inventions led to an blast of seductiveness and use in electric motors for industry, while roughly concurrently another good contriver was building a primary competitor, that would spin many some-more widespread. The growth of electric motors of excusable potency was behind for several decades by disaster to commend a impassioned significance of a partially tiny atmosphere opening between rotor and stator. Efficient designs have a partially tiny atmosphere gap.[20][a] The St. Louis motor, prolonged used in classrooms to illustrate engine principles, is intensely emasculate for a same reason, as good as appearing 0 like a complicated motor.[21]

Application of electric motors revolutionized industry. Industrial processes were no longer singular by appetite delivery regulating line shafts, belts, dense atmosphere or hydraulic pressure. Instead any appurtenance could be versed with a possess electric motor, providing easy control during a indicate of use, and improving appetite delivery efficiency. Electric motors unsentimental in cultivation separated tellurian and animal flesh appetite from such tasks as doing pellet or pumping water. Household uses of electric motors reduced complicated labor in a home and finished aloft standards of convenience, comfort and reserve possible. Today, electric motors mount for some-more than half of a electric appetite expenditure in a US.[22]

Emergence of AC motors[edit]

In 1824, a French physicist François Arago formulated a existence of rotating captivating fields, termed Arago’s rotations, which, by manually branch switches on and off, Walter Baily demonstrated in 1879 as in outcome a initial archaic initiation motor.[23][24][25][26] In a 1880s, many inventors were perplexing to arise applicable AC motors[27] given AC’s advantages in long-distance high-voltage delivery were counterbalanced by a inability to work motors on AC. The initial alternating-current commutatorless initiation motors were exclusively invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla, a operative engine indication carrying been demonstrated by a former in 1885 and by a latter in 1887. In 1888, a Royal Academy of Science of Turin published Ferraris’s investigate detailing a foundations of engine operation while however final that “the apparatus finished on that component could not be of any blurb significance as motor.”[26][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]

In 1888, Tesla presented his paper A New System for Alternating Current Motors and Transformers to a AIEE that described 3 law two-phase four-stator-pole engine types: one with a four-pole rotor combining a non-self-starting hostility motor, another with a wound rotor combining a self-starting initiation motor, and a third a loyal synchronous engine with alone vehement DC supply to rotor winding.

One of a patents Tesla filed in 1887, however, also described a shorted-winding-rotor initiation motor. George Westinghouse soon bought Tesla’s patents, employed Tesla to arise them, and reserved C. F. Scott to assistance Tesla; however, Tesla left for other pursuits in 1889.[26][33][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] The consistent speed AC initiation engine was found not to be suitable for travel cars,[27] though Westinghouse engineers successfully blending it to appetite a mining operation in Telluride, Colorado in 1891.[48][49][50]

Steadfast in his graduation of three-phase development, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky invented a three-phase cage-rotor initiation engine in 1889 and a three-limb transformer in 1890. This form of engine is now used for a immeasurable infancy of blurb applications.[51][52] However, he claimed that Tesla’s engine was not unsentimental given of two-phase pulsations, that stirred him to insist in his three-phase work.[53] Although Westinghouse achieved a initial unsentimental initiation engine in 1892 and grown a line of polyphase 60 hertz initiation motors in 1893, these early Westinghouse motors were two-phase motors with wound rotors until B. G. Lamme grown a rotating bar circuitous rotor.[40]

The General Electric Company began building three-phase initiation motors in 1891.[40] By 1896, General Electric and Westinghouse sealed a cross-licensing agreement for a bar-winding-rotor design, after called a squirrel-cage rotor.[40] Induction engine improvements issuing from these inventions and innovations were such that a 100 horsepower (HP) initiation engine now has a same ascent measure as a 7.5 HP engine in 1897.[40]

Motor construction[edit]

Rotor[edit]

In an electric motor, a relocating partial is a rotor, that turns a missile to broach a automatic power. The rotor customarily has conductors laid into it that lift currents, that correlate with a captivating margin of a stator to beget a army that spin a shaft. However, some rotors lift permanent magnets, and a stator binds a conductors.

Bearings[edit]

The rotor is upheld by bearings, that concede a rotor to spin on a axis. The orientation are in spin upheld by a engine housing. The engine missile extends by a orientation to a outward of a motor, where a bucket is applied. Because a army of a bucket are exerted over a utmost bearing, a bucket is pronounced to be overhung.[54]

Stator[edit]

The stator is a still partial of a motor’s electromagnetic circuit and customarily consists of possibly windings or permanent magnets. The stator core is finished adult of many skinny steel sheets, called laminations. Laminations are used to revoke appetite waste that would outcome if a plain core were used.

Air gap[edit]

The stretch between a rotor and stator is called a atmosphere gap. The atmosphere opening has vicious effects, and is generally as tiny as possible, as a immeasurable opening has a clever disastrous outcome on a opening of an electric motor. It is a categorical source of a low appetite means during that motors operate. The atmosphere opening increases a magnetizing stream needed. For this reason, a atmosphere opening should be minimal. Very tiny gaps competence poise automatic problems in offer to sound and losses.

Windings[edit]

Windings are wires that are laid in coils, customarily wrapped around a laminated soothing iron captivating core so as to form captivating poles when energized with current.

Electric machines come in twin simple magnet margin stick configurations: salient-pole appurtenance and nonsalient-pole machine. In a salient-pole appurtenance a pole’s captivating margin is assembled by a circuitous wound around a stick subsequent a stick face. In a nonsalient-pole, or distributed field, or round-rotor, machine, a circuitous is distributed in stick face slots.[55] A shaded-pole engine has a circuitous around partial of a stick that delays a proviso of a captivating margin for that pole.

Some motors have conductors that embody of thicker metal, such as bars or sheets of metal, customarily copper, nonetheless infrequently aluminum is used. These are customarily powered by electromagnetic induction.

Commutator[edit]

A commutator is a resource used to switch a submit of many DC machines and certain AC machines consisting of trip ring segments insulated from any other and from a electric motor’s shaft. The motor’s armature stream is granted by a still brushes in hit with a revolving commutator, that causes compulsory stream annulment and relates appetite to a appurtenance in an optimal demeanour as a rotor rotates from stick to pole.[56][57] In deficiency of such stream reversal, a engine would stop to a stop. In light of poignant advances in a past few decades due to softened technologies in electronic controller, sensorless control, initiation motor, and permanent magnet engine fields, electromechanically commutated motors are increasingly being transposed by outwardly commutated initiation and permanent-magnet motors.

Motor supply and control[edit]

Motor supply[edit]

A DC engine is customarily granted by trip ring commutator as described above. AC motors’ commutation can be possibly trip ring commutator or outwardly commutated type, can be fixed-speed or variable-speed control type, and can be synchronous or asynchronous type. Universal motors can run on possibly AC or DC.

Motor control[edit]

Fixed-speed tranquil AC motors are supposing with direct-on-line or soft-start starters.

Variable speed tranquil AC motors are supposing with a operation of opposite appetite inverter, variable-frequency expostulate or electronic commutator technologies.

The tenure electronic commutator is customarily compared with self-commutated brushless DC engine and switched hostility engine applications.

Major categories[edit]

Electric motors work on 3 opposite earthy principles: magnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric. By distant a many common is magnetic.

In captivating motors, captivating fields are finished in both a rotor and a stator. The product between these twin fields gives arise to a force, and so a torque on a engine shaft. One, or both, of these fields contingency be finished to change with a revolution of a motor. This is finished by switching a poles on and off during a right time, or varying a strength of a pole.

The categorical forms are DC motors and AC motors,[58] a former increasingly being transposed by a latter.[citation needed]

AC electric motors are possibly asynchronous or synchronous.[59]

Once started, a synchronous engine requires synchronism with a relocating captivating field’s synchronous speed for all normal torque conditions.

In synchronous machines, a captivating margin contingency be supposing by means other than initiation such as from alone vehement windings or permanent magnets.

A fractional horsepower (FHP) engine possibly has a rating subsequent about 1 horsepower (0.746 kW), or is finished with a customary support stretch smaller than a customary 1 HP motor. Many domicile and industrial motors are in a fractional horsepower class.

Notes:

  1. Rotation is eccentric of a bulk of a AC voltage.
  2. Rotation is equal to synchronous speed (motor stator margin speed).
  3. In SCIM fixed-speed operation revolution is equal to synchronous speed reduction trip speed.
  4. In non-slip appetite liberation systems WRIM is customarily used for engine starting though can be used to change bucket speed.
  5. Variable-speed operation.
  6. Whereas initiation and synchronous engine drives are typically with possibly six-step or sinusoidal waveform output, BLDC engine drives are customarily with trapezoidal stream waveform; a duty of both sinusoidal and trapezoidal PM machines is however matching in terms of their elemental aspects.[67]
  7. In variable-speed operation WRIM is used in trip appetite liberation and double-fed initiation appurtenance applications.
  8. A enclosure circuitous is a shorted-circuited squirrel-cage rotor, a wound circuitous is connected outwardly by trip rings.
  9. Mostly single-phase with some three-phase.

Abbreviations:

  • BLAC – Brushless AC
  • BLDC – Brushless DC
  • BLDM – Brushless DC motor
  • EC – Electronic commutator
  • PM – Permanent magnet
  • IPMSM – Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor
  • PMSM – Permanent magnet synchronous motor
  • SPMSM – Surface permanent magnet synchronous motor
  • SCIM – Squirrel-cage initiation motor
  • SRM – Switched hostility motor
  • SyRM – Synchronous hostility motor
  • VFD – Variable-frequency drive
  • WRIM – Wound-rotor initiation motor
  • WRSM – Wound-rotor synchronous motor
  • LRA – Locked Rotor Amps: The stream we can pattern underneath starting conditions when we request full voltage. It occurs now during start up.
  • RLA – Rated Load Amps: The extent stream a engine should lift underneath any handling conditions. Often wrongly called regulating bucket amps that leads people to believe, incorrectly, that a engine should always lift these amps.
  • FLA – Full Load Amps: Changed in 1976 to “RLA – Rated Load Amps”.

Self-commutated motor[edit]

Brushed DC motor[edit]

All self-commutated DC motors are by clarification run on DC electric power. Most DC motors are tiny PM types. They enclose a brushed inner automatic commutation to retreat engine windings’ stream in synchronism with rotation.[68]

Electrically vehement DC motor[edit]

A commutated DC engine has a set of rotating windings wound on an armature mounted on a rotating shaft. The missile also carries a commutator, a long-lasting rotary electrical switch that intermittently reverses a upsurge of stream in a rotor windings as a missile rotates. Thus, any brushed DC engine has AC issuing by a rotating windings. Current flows by one or some-more pairs of brushes that bear on a commutator; a brushes bond an outmost source of electric appetite to a rotating armature.

The rotating armature consists of one or some-more coils of hoop wound around a laminated, magnetically “soft” ferromagnetic core. Current from a brushes flows by a commutator and one circuitous of a armature, creation it a proxy magnet (an electromagnet). The captivating margin assembled by a armature interacts with a still captivating margin assembled by possibly PMs or another circuitous (a margin coil), as partial of a engine frame. The force between a twin captivating fields tends to stagger a engine shaft. The commutator switches appetite to a coils as a rotor turns, gripping a captivating poles of a rotor from ever wholly aligning with a captivating poles of a stator field, so that a rotor never stops (like a compass needle does), though rather keeps rotating as prolonged as appetite is applied.

Many of a stipulations of a classical commutator DC engine are due to a need for brushes to press opposite a commutator. This creates friction. Sparks are combined by a brushes creation and violation circuits by a rotor coils as a brushes cranky a insulating gaps between commutator sections. Depending on a commutator design, this competence embody a brushes shorting together adjacent sections – and hence curl ends – momentarily while channel a gaps. Furthermore, a inductance of a rotor coils causes a voltage opposite any to arise when a circuit is opened, augmenting a sparking of a brushes. This sparking boundary a extent speed of a machine, as too-rapid sparking will overheat, erode, or even warp a commutator. The stream firmness per territory area of a brushes, in multiple with their resistivity, boundary a outlay of a motor. The creation and violation of electric hit also generates electrical noise; sparking generates RFI. Brushes eventually wear out and need replacement, and a commutator itself is theme to wear and upkeep (on incomparable motors) or deputy (on tiny motors). The commutator public on a immeasurable engine is a dear element, requiring pointing public of many parts. On tiny motors, a commutator is customarily henceforth integrated into a rotor, so replacing it customarily requires replacing a whole rotor.

While many commutators are cylindrical, some are prosaic discs consisting of several segments (typically, during slightest three) mounted on an insulator.

Large brushes are preferred for a incomparable brush hit area to maximize engine output, though tiny brushes are preferred for low mass to maximize a speed during that a engine can run though a brushes excessively bouncing and sparking. (Small brushes are also fascinating for revoke cost.) Stiffer brush springs can also be used to make brushes of a given mass work during a aloft speed, though during a cost of incomparable attrition waste (lower efficiency) and accelerated brush and commutator wear. Therefore, DC engine brush pattern entails a trade-off between outlay power, speed, and efficiency/wear.

DC machines are tangible as follows:[69]

  • Armature circuit – A circuitous where a bucket stream is carried, such that can be possibly still or rotating partial of engine or generator.
  • Field circuit – A set of windings that produces a captivating margin so that a electromagnetic initiation can take place in electric machines.
  • Commutation: A automatic technique in that correction can be achieved, or from that DC can be derived, in DC machines.

There are 5 forms of brushed DC motor:-

  • DC shunt-wound motor
  • DC series-wound motor
  • DC devalue engine (two configurations):
    • Cumulative compound
    • Differentially compounded
  • PM DC engine (not shown)
  • Separately vehement (not shown).

Permanent magnet DC motor[edit]

A PM engine does not have a margin circuitous on a stator frame, instead relying on PMs to yield a captivating margin opposite that a rotor margin interacts to furnish torque. Compensating windings in array with a armature competence be used on immeasurable motors to urge commutation underneath load. Because this margin is fixed, it can't be practiced for speed control. PM fields (stators) are accessible in tiny motors to discharge a appetite expenditure of a margin winding. Most incomparable DC motors are of a “dynamo” type, that have stator windings. Historically, PMs could not be finished to keep high suit if they were disassembled; margin windings were some-more unsentimental to obtain a indispensable volume of flux. However, immeasurable PMs are costly, as good as dangerous and formidable to assemble; this favors wound fields for immeasurable machines.

To minimize altogether weight and size, tiny PM motors competence use high appetite magnets finished with neodymium or other vital elements; many such are neodymium-iron-boron alloy. With their aloft suit density, electric machines with high-energy PMs are during slightest rival with all optimally designed singly-fed synchronous and initiation electric machines. Miniature motors resemble a structure in a illustration, solely that they have during slightest 3 rotor poles (to safeguard starting, regardless of rotor position) and their outdoor housing is a steel tube that magnetically links a exteriors of a circuitous margin magnets.

Electronic commutator (EC) motor[edit]

Brushless DC motor[edit]

Some of a problems of a brushed DC engine are separated in a BLDC design. In this motor, a automatic “rotating switch” or commutator is transposed by an outmost electronic switch synchronised to a rotor’s position. BLDC motors are typically 85–90% fit or more. Efficiency for a BLDC engine of adult to 96.5% have been reported,[70] given DC motors with brushgear are typically 75–80% efficient.

The BLDC motor’s evil trapezoidal back-emf waveform is subsequent partly from a stator windings being uniformly distributed, and partly from a chain of a rotor’s PMs. Also famous as electronically commutated DC or inside out DC motors, a stator windings of trapezoidal BLDC motors can be with single-phase, two-phase or three-phase and use Hall outcome sensors mounted on their windings for rotor position intuiting and low cost closed-loop control of a electronic commutator.

BLDC motors are ordinarily used where accurate speed control is necessary, as in resource hoop drives or in video cassette recorders, a spindles within CD, CD-ROM (etc.) drives, and mechanisms within bureau products, such as fans, laser printers and photocopiers. They have several advantages over compulsory motors:

  • Compared to AC fans regulating shaded-pole motors, they are really efficient, regulating many cooler than a homogeneous AC motors. This cold operation leads to much-improved life of a fan’s bearings.
  • Without a commutator to wear out, a life of a BLDC engine can be significantly longer compared to a DC engine regulating brushes and a commutator. Commutation also tends to means a good understanding of electrical and RF noise; though a commutator or brushes, a BLDC engine competence be used in electrically supportive inclination like audio apparatus or computers.
  • The same Hall outcome sensors that yield a commutation can also yield a accessible tachometer vigilance for closed-loop control (servo-controlled) applications. In fans, a tachometer vigilance can be used to get a “fan OK” vigilance as good as yield regulating speed feedback.
  • The engine can be simply synchronized to an inner or outmost clock, heading to accurate speed control.
  • BLDC motors have no possibility of sparking, distinct brushed motors, creation them improved matched to environments with flighty chemicals and fuels. Also, sparking generates ozone, that can amass in feeble ventilated buildings risking mistreat to occupants’ health.
  • BLDC motors are customarily used in tiny apparatus such as computers and are generally used in fans to get absolved of neglected heat.
  • They are also acoustically really still motors, that is an advantage if being used in apparatus that is influenced by vibrations.

Modern BLDC motors operation in appetite from a fragment of a watt to many kilowatts. Larger BLDC motors adult to about 100 kW rating are used in electric vehicles. They also find poignant use in high-performance electric indication aircraft.

Switched hostility motor[edit]

The SRM has no brushes or PMs, and a rotor has no electric currents. Instead, torque comes from a slight misalignment of poles on a rotor with poles on a stator. The rotor aligns itself with a captivating margin of a stator, while a stator margin windings are sequentially energized to stagger a stator field.

The captivating suit combined by a margin windings follows a trail of slightest captivating reluctance, definition a suit will upsurge by poles of a rotor that are closest to a energized poles of a stator, thereby magnetizing those poles of a rotor and formulating torque. As a rotor turns, opposite windings will be energized, gripping a rotor turning.

SRMs are now being used in some appliances.[71]

Universal AC-DC motor[edit]

A commutated electrically vehement array or together wound engine is referred to as a concept engine given it can be designed to work on AC or DC power. A concept engine can work good on AC given a stream in both a margin and a armature coils (and hence a following captivating fields) will swap (reverse polarity) in synchronism, and hence a ensuing automatic force will start in a consistent instruction of rotation.

Operating during normal appetite line frequencies, concept motors are mostly found in a operation reduction than 1000 watts. Universal motors also finished a basement of a normal railway traction engine in electric railways. In this application, a use of AC to appetite a engine creatively designed to run on DC would lead to potency waste due to eddy stream heating of their captivating components, utterly a engine margin pole-pieces that, for DC, would have used plain (un-laminated) iron and they are now bulk used.

An advantage of a concept engine is that AC reserve competence be used on motors that have some characteristics some-more common in DC motors, privately high starting torque and really compress pattern if high regulating speeds are used. The disastrous aspect is a upkeep and brief life problems caused by a commutator. Such motors are used in devices, such as food mixers and appetite tools, that are used customarily intermittently, and mostly have high starting-torque demands. Multiple taps on a margin curl yield (imprecise) stepped speed control. Household blenders that publicize many speeds frequently mix a margin curl with several taps and a diode that can be extrinsic in array with a engine (causing a engine to run on half-wave accurate AC). Universal motors also lend themselves to electronic speed control and, as such, are an ideal choice for inclination like domestic soaking machines. The engine can be used to perturb a drum (both forwards and in reverse) by switching a margin circuitous with honour to a armature.

Whereas SCIMs can't spin a missile faster than authorised by a appetite line frequency, concept motors can run during many aloft speeds. This creates them useful for appliances such as blenders, opening cleaners, and hair dryers where high speed and light weight are desirable. They are also ordinarily used in inconstant appetite tools, such as drills, sanders, round and hop saws, where a motor’s characteristics work well. Many opening cleaner and weed trimmer motors surpass 10,000 rpm, while many matching tiny grinders surpass 30,000 rpm.

Externally commutated AC machine[edit]

The pattern of AC initiation and synchronous motors is optimized for operation on single-phase or polyphase sinusoidal or quasi-sinusoidal waveform appetite such as granted for fixed-speed focus from a AC appetite grid or for variable-speed focus from VFD controllers. An AC engine has twin parts: a still stator carrying coils granted with AC to furnish a rotating captivating field, and a rotor trustworthy to a outlay missile that is given a torque by a rotating field.

Induction motor[edit]

Cage and wound rotor initiation motor[edit]

An initiation engine is an asynchronous AC engine where appetite is eliminated to a rotor by electromagnetic induction, many like transformer action. An initiation engine resembles a rotating transformer, given a stator (stationary part) is radically a primary side of a transformer and a rotor (rotating part) is a delegate side. Polyphase initiation motors are widely used in industry.

Induction motors competence be offer divided into Squirrel Cage Induction Motors and Wound Rotor Induction Motors. SCIMs have a complicated circuitous finished adult of plain bars, customarily aluminum or copper, assimilated by rings during a ends of a rotor. When one considers customarily a bars and rings as a whole, they are many like an animal’s rotating practice cage, hence a name.

Currents prompted into this circuitous yield a rotor captivating field. The figure of a rotor bars determines a speed-torque characteristics. At low speeds, a stream prompted in a squirrel enclosure is scarcely during line bulk and tends to be in a outdoor collection of a rotor cage. As a engine accelerates, a trip bulk becomes lower, and some-more stream is in a interior of a winding. By moulding a bars to change a insurgency of a circuitous portions in a interior and outdoor collection of a cage, effectively a non-static insurgency is extrinsic in a rotor circuit. However, a infancy of such motors have uniform bars.

In a WRIM, a rotor circuitous is finished of many turns of insulated hoop and is connected to trip rings on a engine shaft. An outmost resistor or other control inclination can be connected in a rotor circuit. Resistors concede control of a engine speed, nonetheless poignant appetite is dissolute in a outmost resistance. A converter can be fed from a rotor circuit and lapse a slip-frequency appetite that would differently be squandered behind into a appetite complement by an inverter or apart motor-generator.

The WRIM is used radically to start a high sluggishness bucket or a bucket that requires a really high starting torque opposite a full speed range. By rightly selecting a resistors used in a delegate insurgency or trip ring starter, a engine is means to furnish extent torque during a partially low supply stream from 0 speed to full speed. This form of engine also offers controllable speed.

Motor speed can be altered given a torque bend of a engine is effectively mutated by a volume of insurgency connected to a rotor circuit. Increasing a value of insurgency will pierce a speed of extent torque down. If a insurgency connected to a rotor is augmenting over a indicate where a extent torque occurs during 0 speed, a torque will be offer reduced.

When used with a bucket that has a torque bend that increases with speed, a engine will work during a speed where a torque grown by a engine is equal to a bucket torque. Reducing a bucket will means a engine to speed up, and augmenting a bucket will means a engine to delayed down until a bucket and engine torque are equal. Operated in this manner, a trip waste are dissolute in a delegate resistors and can be really significant. The speed law and net potency is also really poor.

Torque motor[edit]

A torque engine is a specialized form of electric engine that can work indefinitely while stalled, that is, with a rotor blocked from turning, though incurring damage. In this mode of operation, a engine will request a solid torque to a bucket (hence a name).

A common focus of a torque engine would be a supply- and take-up tilt motors in a fasten drive. In this application, driven from a low voltage, a characteristics of these motors concede a partially consistent light tragedy to be unsentimental to a fasten possibly or not a capstan is feeding fasten past a fasten heads. Driven from a aloft voltage, (and so delivering a aloft torque), a torque motors can also grasp fast-forward and rewind operation though requiring any additional mechanics such as gears or clutches. In a resource gaming world, torque motors are used in force feedback steering wheels.

Another common focus is a control of a stifle of an inner explosion engine in and with an electronic governor. In this usage, a engine works opposite a lapse open to pierce a stifle in suitability with a outlay of a governor. The latter monitors engine speed by counting electrical pulses from a ignition complement or from a captivating pickup and, depending on a speed, creates tiny adjustments to a volume of stream unsentimental to a motor. If a engine starts to delayed down relations to a preferred speed, a stream will be increased, a engine will arise some-more torque, pulling opposite a lapse open and opening a throttle. Should a engine run too fast, a administrator will revoke a stream being unsentimental to a motor, causing a lapse open to lift behind and tighten a throttle.

Synchronous motor[edit]

A synchronous electric engine is an AC engine renowned by a rotor spinning with coils flitting magnets during a same rate as a AC and ensuing in a captivating margin that drives it. Another approach of observant this is that it has 0 trip underneath common handling conditions. Contrast this with an initiation motor, that contingency trip to furnish torque. One form of synchronous engine is like an initiation engine solely a rotor is vehement by a DC field. Slip rings and brushes are used to control stream to a rotor. The rotor poles bond to any other and pierce during a same speed hence a name synchronous motor. Another type, for low bucket torque, has flats belligerent onto a compulsory squirrel-cage rotor to emanate dissimilar poles. Yet another, such as finished by Hammond for a pre-World War II clocks, and in a comparison Hammond organs, has no rotor windings and dissimilar poles. It is not self-starting. The time requires primer starting by a tiny doorknob on a back, while a comparison Hammond viscera had an auxiliary starting engine connected by a spring-loaded manually operated switch.

Finally, hysteresis synchronous motors typically are (essentially) two-phase motors with a phase-shifting capacitor for one phase. They start like initiation motors, though when trip rate decreases sufficiently, a rotor (a well-spoken cylinder) becomes temporarily magnetized. Its distributed poles make it act like a PMSM. The rotor material, like that of a common nail, will stay magnetized, though can also be demagnetized with tiny difficulty. Once running, a rotor poles stay in place; they do not drift.

Low-power synchronous timing motors (such as those for normal electric clocks) competence have multi-pole PM outmost crater rotors, and use shading coils to yield starting torque. Telechron time motors have shadowy poles for starting torque, and a two-spoke ring rotor that performs like a dissimilar two-pole rotor.

Doubly-fed electric machine[edit]

Doubly fed electric motors have twin eccentric multiphase circuitous sets, that minister active (i.e., working) appetite to a appetite acclimatisation process, with during slightest one of a circuitous sets electronically tranquil for non-static speed operation. Two eccentric multiphase circuitous sets (i.e., twin armature) are a extent supposing in a singular package though topology duplication. Doubly-fed electric motors are machines with an effective consistent torque speed operation that is twice synchronous speed for a given bulk of excitation. This is twice a consistent torque speed operation as singly-fed electric machines, that have customarily one active circuitous set.

A doubly-fed engine allows for a smaller electronic converter though a cost of a rotor circuitous and trip rings competence equivalent a saving in a appetite wiring components. Difficulties with determining speed nearby synchronous speed extent applications.[72]

Special captivating motors[edit]

Rotary[edit]

Ironless or coreless rotor motor[edit]

Nothing in a component of any of a motors described above requires that a iron (steel) portions of a rotor indeed rotate. If a soothing captivating component of a rotor is finished in a form of a cylinder, afterwards (except for a outcome of hysteresis) torque is exerted customarily on a windings of a electromagnets. Taking advantage of this fact is a coreless or ironless DC motor, a specialized form of a PM DC motor.[68] Optimized for quick acceleration, these motors have a rotor that is assembled though any iron core. The rotor can take a form of a winding-filled cylinder, or a confident structure comprising customarily a magnet hoop and a fastening material. The rotor can fit inside a stator magnets; a magnetically soothing still cylinder inside a rotor provides a lapse trail for a stator captivating flux. A second arrangement has a rotor circuitous basket surrounding a stator magnets. In that design, a rotor fits inside a magnetically soothing cylinder that can offer as a housing for a motor, and further provides a lapse trail for a flux.

Because a rotor is many lighter in weight (mass) than a compulsory rotor finished from copper windings on steel laminations, a rotor can accelerate many some-more rapidly, mostly achieving a automatic time consistent underneath one ms. This is generally loyal if a windings use aluminum rather than a heavier copper. But given there is no steel mass in a rotor to act as a feverishness sink, even tiny coreless motors contingency mostly be cooled by forced air. Overheating competence be an emanate for coreless DC engine designs. Modern software, such as Motor-CAD, can assistance to boost a thermal potency of motors while still in a pattern stage.

Among these forms are a disc-rotor types, described in some-more fact in a subsequent section.

The relocating warning of mobile phones is infrequently generated by tiny cylindrical PM margin types, though there are also disc-shaped forms that have a skinny multipolar front margin magnet, and an intentionally lunatic molded-plastic rotor structure with twin connected coreless coils. Metal brushes and a prosaic commutator switch appetite to a rotor coils.

Related limited-travel actuators have no core and a connected curl placed between a poles of high-flux skinny PMs. These are a quick conduct positioners for rigid-disk (“hard disk”) drives. Although a contemporary pattern differs intensely from that of loudspeakers, it is still loosely (and incorrectly) referred to as a “voice coil” structure, given some progressing rigid-disk-drive heads changed in true lines, and had a expostulate structure many like that of a loudspeaker.

Pancake or axial rotor motor[edit]

A rather surprising engine design, a printed armature or pancake engine has a windings finished as a front regulating between arrays of high-flux magnets. The magnets are organised in a round confronting a rotor with space in between to form an axial atmosphere gap.[73] This pattern is ordinarily famous as a pancake engine given of a intensely prosaic profile, nonetheless a record has had many code names given a inception, such as ServoDisc.

The printed armature (originally finished on a printed circuit board) in a printed armature engine is finished from punched copper sheets that are laminated together regulating modernized composites to form a skinny firm disc. The printed armature has a singular construction in a brushed engine universe in that it does not have a apart ring commutator. The brushes run directly on a armature aspect creation a whole pattern really compact.

An choice prolongation routine is to use wound copper hoop laid prosaic with a executive compulsory commutator, in a flower and petal shape. The windings are typically stabilized by being assimilated with electrical glue potting systems. These are filled epoxies that have assuage churned flexibility and a prolonged jelly time. They are highlighted by low decline and low exotherm, and are typically UL 1446 famous as a potting devalue insulated with 180 °C, Class H rating.

The singular advantage of ironless DC motors is that there is no cogging (torque variations caused by changing captivate between a iron and a magnets). Parasitic eddy currents can't form in a rotor as it is totally ironless, nonetheless iron rotors are laminated. This can severely urge efficiency, though variable-speed controllers contingency use a aloft switching rate (40 kHz) or DC given of a decreased electromagnetic induction.

These motors were creatively invented to expostulate a capstan(s) of captivating fasten drives in a burgeoning resource industry, where minimal time to strech handling speed and minimal interlude stretch were critical. Pancake motors are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, robotic systems, industrial automation and medical devices. Due to a accumulation of constructions now available, a record is used in applications from high feverishness troops to low cost siphon and simple servos.

Servo motor[edit]

A servomotor is a motor, really mostly sole as a finish module, that is used within a position-control or speed-control feedback control complement generally control valves, such as motor-operated control valves. Servomotors are used in applications such as appurtenance tools, coop plotters, and other routine systems. Motors dictated for use in a servomechanism contingency have well-documented characteristics for speed, torque, and power. The speed vs. torque bend is utterly vicious and is high ratio for a servo motor. Dynamic response characteristics such as circuitous inductance and rotor sluggishness are also important; these factors extent a altogether opening of a servomechanism loop. Large, powerful, though slow-responding servo loops competence use compulsory AC or DC motors and expostulate systems with position or speed feedback on a motor. As energetic response mandate increase, some-more specialized engine designs such as coreless motors are used. AC motors’ aloft appetite firmness and acceleration characteristics compared to that of DC motors tends to preference PM synchronous, BLDC, induction, and SRM expostulate applications.[73]

A servo complement differs from some stepper engine applications in that a position feedback is continual while a engine is running; a stepper complement relies on a engine not to “miss steps” for brief tenure accuracy, nonetheless a stepper complement competence embody a “home” switch or other component to yield long-term fortitude of control.[74] For instance, when a customary dot pattern resource printer starts up, a controller creates a imitation conduct stepper engine expostulate to a left-hand limit, where a position sensor defines home position and stops stepping. As prolonged as appetite is on, a bidirectional opposite in a printer’s microprocessor keeps lane of print-head position.

Stepper motor[edit]

Stepper motors are a form of engine frequently used when accurate rotations are required. In a stepper engine an inner rotor containing PMs or a magnetically soothing rotor with distinct poles is tranquil by a set of outmost magnets that are switched electronically. A stepper engine competence also be suspicion of as a cranky between a DC electric engine and a rotary solenoid. As any curl is energized in turn, a rotor aligns itself with a captivating margin assembled by a energized margin winding. Unlike a synchronous motor, in a application, a stepper engine competence not stagger continuously; instead, it “steps”—starts and afterwards quick stops again—from one position to a subsequent as margin windings are energized and de-energized in sequence. Depending on a sequence, a rotor competence spin forwards or backwards, and it competence change direction, stop, speed adult or delayed down arbitrarily during any time.

Simple stepper engine drivers wholly vitalise or wholly de-energize a margin windings, heading a rotor to “cog” to a singular array of positions; some-more worldly drivers can proportionally control a appetite to a margin windings, permitting a rotors to position between a spoke points and thereby stagger intensely smoothly. This mode of operation is mostly called microstepping. Computer tranquil stepper motors are one of a many versatile forms of positioning systems, utterly when partial of a digital servo-controlled system.

Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle in dissimilar stairs with ease, and hence stepper motors are used for read/write conduct positioning in resource floppy diskette drives. They were used for a same purpose in pre-gigabyte epoch resource hoop drives, where a pointing and speed they offering was adequate for a scold positioning of a read/write conduct of a tough hoop drive. As expostulate firmness increased, a pointing and speed stipulations of stepper motors finished them archaic for tough drives—the pointing reduction finished them unusable, and a speed reduction finished them uncompetitive—thus newer tough hoop drives use voice coil-based conduct actuator systems. (The tenure “voice coil” in this tie is historic; it refers to a structure in a customary (cone type) loudspeaker. This structure was used for a while to position a heads. Modern drives have a pivoted curl mount; a curl swings behind and forth, something like a blade of a rotating fan. Nevertheless, like a voice coil, complicated actuator curl conductors (the magnet wire) pierce perpendicular to a captivating lines of force.)

Stepper motors were and still are mostly used in resource printers, visual scanners, and digital photocopiers to pierce a visual scanning element, a imitation conduct carriage (of dot pattern and inkjet printers), and a platen or feed rollers. Likewise, many resource plotters (which given a early 1990s have been transposed with large-format inkjet and laser printers) used rotary stepper motors for coop and platen movement; a customary alternatives here were possibly linear stepper motors or servomotors with closed-loop analog control systems.

So-called quartz analog wristwatches enclose a smallest hackneyed stepping motors; they have one coil, lift really tiny power, and have a PM rotor. The same kind of engine drives battery-powered quartz clocks. Some of these watches, such as chronographs, enclose some-more than one stepping motor.

Closely compared in pattern to three-phase AC synchronous motors, stepper motors and SRMs are personal as non-static hostility engine type.[75] Stepper motors were and still are mostly used in resource printers, visual scanners, and resource numerical control (CNC) machines such as routers, plasma cutters and CNC lathes.

Linear motor[edit]

A linear engine is radically any electric engine that has been “unrolled” so that, instead of producing a torque (rotation), it produces a straight-line force along a length.

Linear motors are many ordinarily initiation motors or stepper motors. Linear motors are ordinarily found in many roller-coasters where a quick suit of a motorless railcar is tranquil by a rail. They are also used in maglev trains, where a sight “flies” over a ground. On a smaller scale, a 1978 epoch HP 7225A coop plotter used twin linear stepper motors to pierce a coop along a X and Y axes.[76]

Comparison by vital categories[edit]

Comparison of engine types

Type
Advantages
Disadvantages
Typical application
Typical drive, output
Self-commutated motors
Brushed DC
Simple speed control
Low initial cost
Maintenance (brushes)
Medium lifespan
Costly commutator and brushes
Steel mills
Paper creation machines
Treadmill exercisers
Automotive accessories
Rectifier, linear transistor(s) or DC chopper controller.[77]
Brushless
DC motor
(BLDC)
or
(BLDM)
Long lifespan
Low maintenance
High efficiency
Higher initial cost
Requires EC controller with closed-loop control
Rigid (“hard”) hoop drives
CD/DVD players
Electric vehicles
RC Vehicles
UAVs
Synchronous; single-phase or three-phase with PM rotor and trapezoidal stator winding; VFD typically VS PWM inverter type.[73][77][78]
Switched
reluctance
motor
(SRM)
Long lifespan
Low maintenance
High efficiency
No permanent magnets
Low cost
Simple construction
Mechanical resonance
possible
High iron losses
Not possible:
* Open or matrix control
* Parallel operation
Requires EC controller[75]
Appliances
Electric Vehicles
Textile mills
Aircraft applications
PWM and several other expostulate types, that tend to be used in really specialized / OEM applications.[75][79]
Universal motor
High starting torque, compact, high speed.
Maintenance (brushes)
Shorter lifespan
Usually acoustically noisy
Only tiny ratings are economical
Handheld appetite tools, blenders, opening cleaners, insulation blowers
Variable singular proviso AC, half-wave or full-wave phase-angle control with triac(s); closed-loop control optional.[77]
AC asynchronous motors
AC polyphase
squirrel-cage
or
wound-rotor
induction motor
(SCIM)
or
(WRIM)
Self-starting
Low cost
Robust
Reliable
Ratings to 1+ MW
Standardized types.
High starting current
Lower efficiency
due to need
for magnetization.
Fixed-speed, traditionally, SCIM a world’s workhorse generally in low opening applications of all types
Variable-speed, traditionally, low-performance variable-torque pumps, fans, blowers and compressors.
Variable-speed, increasingly, other high-performance constant-torque and constant-power or energetic loads.
Fixed-speed, low opening applications of all types.
Variable-speed, traditionally, WRIM drives or fixed-speed V/Hz-controlled VSDs.
Variable-speed, increasingly, vector-controlled VSDs displacing DC, WRIM and single-phase AC initiation engine drives.
AC SCIM
split-phase
capacitor-start
High power
high starting torque
Speed somewhat subsequent synchronous
Starting switch or send required
Appliances
Stationary Power Tools
Fixed or non-static single-phase AC, non-static speed being derived, typically, by full-wave phase-angle control with triac(s); closed-loop control optional.[77]
AC SCIM
split-phase
capacitor-run
Moderate power
High starting torque
No starting switch
Comparatively prolonged life
Speed somewhat subsequent synchronous
Slightly some-more costly
Industrial blowers
Industrial machinery
AC SCIM
split-phase,
auxiliary
start winding
Moderate power
Low starting torque
Speed somewhat subsequent synchronous
Starting switch or send required
Appliances
Stationary appetite tools
AC initiation shaded-pole
motor
Low cost
Long life
Speed somewhat subsequent synchronous
Low starting torque
Small ratings
low efficiency
Fans, appliances, record players
AC synchronous motors
Wound-rotor
synchronous
motor
(WRSM)
Synchronous speed
Inherently
more efficient
induction motor,
low appetite factor
More costly
Industrial motors
Fixed or non-static speed, three-phase; VFD typically six-step CS load-commutated inverter form or VS PWM inverter type.[77][78]
Hysteresis
motor

Accurate speed control
Low noise
No vibration
High starting
torque
Very low efficiency
Clocks, timers, sound producing or recording equipment, tough drive, capstan drive
Single-phase AC, two-phase capacitor-start, capacitor run motor[80][81]
Synchronous
reluctance
motor
(SyRM)
Equivalent to SCIM
except some-more robust, some-more efficient, runs cooler, smaller footprint
Competes with PM synchronous engine though demagnetization issues
Requires a controller
Not widely available
High cost
Appliances
Electric vehicles
Textile mills
Aircraft applications
VFD can be customary DTC form or VS inverter PWM type.[82]
Specialty motors
Pancake
or axial
rotor
motors
[73]
Compact design
Simple speed control
Medium cost
Medium lifespan
Office Equip
Fans/Pumps, quick industrial and troops servos
Drives can typically be brushed or brushless DC type.[73]
Stepper
motor
Precision positioning
High holding torque
Some can be costly
Require a controller
Positioning in printers and floppy front drives; industrial appurtenance tools
Not a VFD. Stepper position is dynamic by beat counting.[83][84]

Electromagnetism[edit]

Force and torque[edit]

The elemental purpose of a immeasurable infancy of a world’s electric motors is to electromagnetically satisfy relations transformation in an atmosphere opening between a stator and rotor to furnish useful torque or linear force.

According to Lorentz force law a force of a circuitous conductor can be given simply by:

F=Iℓ×B{displaystyle mathbf {F} =I{boldsymbol {ell }}times mathbf {B} ,!}

or some-more generally, to hoop conductors with any geometry:

F=J×B{displaystyle mathbf {F} =mathbf {J} times mathbf {B} }

The many ubiquitous approaches to calculating a army in motors use tensors.[85]

Power[edit]

Where rpm is missile speed and T is torque, a motor’s automatic appetite outlay Pem is given by,[86]

in British units with T voiced in foot-pounds,

Pem=rpm×T5252{displaystyle P_{em}={frac {rpmtimes T}{5252}}} (horsepower), and,

in SI units with missile bony speed voiced in radians per second, and T voiced in newton-meters,

Pem=angularspeed×T{displaystyle P_{em}={angularspeedtimes T}} (watts).

For a linear motor, with force F voiced in newtons and quickness v voiced in meters per second,

Pem=F×v{displaystyle P_{em}=Ftimes {v}} (watts).

In an asynchronous or initiation motor, a attribute between engine speed and atmosphere opening appetite is, neglecting skin effect, given by a following:

Pairgap=Rrs∗Ir2{displaystyle P_{airgap}={frac {R_{r}}{s}}*I_{r}^{2}}, where
Rr – rotor resistance
Ir2 – block of stream prompted in a rotor
s – engine slip; ie, disproportion between synchronous speed and trip speed, that provides a relations transformation indispensable for stream initiation in a rotor.

Back emf[edit]

Since a armature windings of a direct-current or concept engine are relocating by a captivating field, they have a voltage prompted in them. This voltage tends to conflict a engine supply voltage and so is called “back electromotive force (emf)”. The voltage is proportional to a regulating speed of a motor. The behind emf of a motor, and a voltage dump opposite a circuitous inner insurgency and brushes, contingency equal a voltage during a brushes. This provides a elemental resource of speed law in a DC motor. If a automatic bucket increases, a engine slows down; a revoke behind emf results, and some-more stream is drawn from a supply. This augmenting stream provides a additional torque to change a new load.[87]

In AC machines, it is infrequently useful to cruise a behind emf source within a machine; as an example, this is of sold regard for tighten speed law of initiation motors on VFDs.[87]

Losses[edit]

Motor waste are generally due to resistive waste in windings, core waste and automatic waste in bearings, and aerodynamic losses, utterly where cooling fans are present, also occur.

Losses also start in commutation, automatic commutators spark, and electronic commutators and also waste heat.

Efficiency[edit]

To calculate a motor’s efficiency, a automatic outlay appetite is divided by a electrical submit power:

η=PmPe{displaystyle eta ={frac {P_{m}}{P_{e}}}},

where η{displaystyle eta } is energy acclimatisation efficiency, Pe{displaystyle P_{e}} is electrical submit power, and Pm{displaystyle P_{m}} is automatic outlay power:

Pe=IV{displaystyle P_{e}=IV}
Pm=Tω{displaystyle P_{m}=Tomega }

where V{displaystyle V} is submit voltage, I{displaystyle I} is submit current, T{displaystyle T} is outlay torque, and ω{displaystyle omega } is outlay bony velocity. It is probable to get analytically a indicate of extent efficiency. It is typically during reduction than 1/2 a stall torque.[citation needed]

Various regulatory authorities in many countries have introduced and implemented legislation to inspire a make and use of higher-efficiency electric motors.

Goodness factor[edit]

Professor Eric Laithwaite[88] due a metric to establish a ‘goodness’ of an electric motor:[89]G=ωresistance×reluctance=ωμσAmAelmle{displaystyle G={frac {omega }{resistancetimes reluctance}}={frac {omega mu sigma A_{m}A_{e}}{l_{m}l_{e}}}}

Where:

G{displaystyle G} is a integrity means (factors above 1 are expected to be efficient)
Am,Ae{displaystyle A_{m},A_{e}} are a cranky sectional areas of a captivating and electric circuit
lm,le{displaystyle l_{m},l_{e}} are a lengths of a captivating and electric circuits
μ{displaystyle mu } is a permeability of a core
ω{displaystyle omega } is a bony bulk a engine is driven at

From this, he showed that a many fit motors are expected to have partially immeasurable captivating poles. However, a equation customarily directly relates to non PM motors.

Performance parameters[edit]

Torque capability of engine types[edit]

All a electromagnetic motors, and that includes a forms mentioned here get a torque from a matrix product of a interacting fields. For calculating a torque it is compulsory to know a fields in a atmosphere gap. Once these have been dynamic by mathematical research regulating FEA or other collection a torque competence be distributed as a constituent of all a vectors of force double by a radius of any vector. The stream issuing in a circuitous is producing a fields and for a engine regulating a captivating component a margin is not linearly proportional to a current. This creates a calculation formidable though a resource can do a many calculations needed.

Once this is finished a figure relating a stream to a torque can be used as a useful parameter for engine selection. The extent torque for a engine will count on a extent stream nonetheless this will customarily be customarily serviceable until thermal considerations take precedence.

When optimally designed within a given core superfluity imprisonment and for a given active stream (i.e., torque current), voltage, pole-pair number, excitation bulk (i.e., synchronous speed), and air-gap suit density, all categories of electric motors or generators will vaunt probably a same extent continual missile torque (i.e., handling torque) within a given air-gap area with circuitous slots and back-iron depth, that determines a earthy stretch of electromagnetic core. Some applications need bursts of torque over a extent handling torque, such as brief bursts of torque to accelerate an electric car from standstill. Always singular by captivating core superfluity or protected handling feverishness arise and voltage, a ability for torque bursts over a extent handling torque differs significantly between categories of electric motors or generators.

Capacity for bursts of torque should not be confused with margin weakening capability. Field weakening allows an electric appurtenance to work over a designed bulk of excitation. Field weakening is finished when a extent speed can't be reached by augmenting a unsentimental voltage. This relates to customarily motors with stream tranquil fields and therefore can't be achieved with PM motors.

Electric machines though a transformer circuit topology, such as that of WRSMs or PMSMs, can't comprehend bursts of torque aloft than a extent designed torque though saturating a captivating core and digest any boost in stream as useless. Furthermore, a PM public of PMSMs can be irreparably damaged, if bursts of torque surpassing a extent handling torque rating are attempted.

Electric machines with a transformer circuit topology, such as initiation machines, initiation doubly-fed electric machines, and initiation or synchronous wound-rotor doubly-fed (WRDF) machines, vaunt really high bursts of torque given a emf-induced active stream on possibly side of a transformer conflict any other and so minister 0 to a transformer joined captivating core suit density, that would differently lead to core saturation.

Electric machines that rest on initiation or asynchronous beliefs short-circuit one pier of a transformer circuit and as a result, a reactive impedance of a transformer circuit becomes widespread as trip increases, that boundary a bulk of active (i.e., real) current. Still, bursts of torque that are twin to 3 times aloft than a extent pattern torque are realizable.

The brushless wound-rotor synchronous doubly-fed (BWRSDF) appurtenance is a customarily electric appurtenance with a truly twin ported transformer circuit topology (i.e., both ports exclusively vehement with no short-circuited port).[90] The twin ported transformer circuit topology is famous to be inconstant and requires a multiphase slip-ring-brush public to generate singular appetite to a rotor circuitous set. If a pointing means were accessible to instantly control torque angle and trip for synchronous operation during motoring or generating while concurrently providing brushless appetite to a rotor circuitous set, a active stream of a BWRSDF appurtenance would be eccentric of a reactive impedance of a transformer circuit and bursts of torque significantly aloft than a extent handling torque and distant over a unsentimental capability of any other form of electric appurtenance would be realizable. Torque bursts incomparable than 8 times handling torque have been calculated.

Continuous torque density[edit]

The continual torque firmness of compulsory electric machines is dynamic by a stretch of a air-gap area and a back-iron depth, that are dynamic by a appetite rating of a armature circuitous set, a speed of a machine, and a practicable air-gap suit firmness before core saturation. Despite a high coercivity of neodymium or samarium-cobalt PMs, continual torque firmness is probably a same among electric machines with optimally designed armature circuitous sets. Continuous torque firmness relates to routine of cooling and slight duration of operation before drop by overheating of windings or PM damage.

Continuous appetite density[edit]

The continual appetite firmness is dynamic by a product of a continual torque firmness and a consistent torque speed operation of a electric machine.

Acoustic sound and vibrations[edit]

Acoustic sound and vibrations of electric motors are customarily personal in 3 sources:

  • mechanical sources (e.g. due to bearings)
  • aerodynamic sources (e.g. due to shaft-mounted fans)
  • magnetic sources (e.g. due to captivating army such as Maxwell and magnetostriction army behaving on stator and rotor structures)

The latter source, that can be obliged for a “whining noise” of electric motors, is called electromagnetically-excited acoustic noise.

Standards[edit]

The following are vital design, manufacturing, and contrast standards covering electric motors:

Non-magnetic motors[edit]

An electrostatic engine is finished on a captivate and abhorrence of electric charge. Usually, electrostatic motors are a twin of compulsory coil-based motors. They typically need a high-voltage appetite supply, nonetheless really tiny motors occupy revoke voltages. Conventional electric motors instead occupy captivating captivate and repulsion, and need high stream during low voltages. In a 1750s, a initial electrostatic motors were grown by Benjamin Franklin and Andrew Gordon. Today, a electrostatic engine finds visit use in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) where their expostulate voltages are subsequent 100 volts, and where moving, charged plates are distant easier to fashion than coils and iron cores. Also, a molecular appurtenance that runs vital cells is mostly finished on linear and rotary electrostatic motors.[citation needed]

A piezoelectric engine or piezo engine is a form of electric engine finished on a change in figure of a piezoelectric component when an electric margin is applied. Piezoelectric motors make use of a inverse piezoelectric outcome whereby a component produces acoustic or ultrasonic vibrations in sequence to furnish a linear or rotary motion.[91] In one mechanism, a elongation in a singular craft is used to make a array stretches and position holds, matching to a approach a larva moves.[citation needed]

An electrically powered booster thrust complement uses electric engine record to propel booster in outdoor space, many systems being finished on electrically powering diesel to high speed, with some systems being finished on electrodynamic tethers beliefs of thrust to a magnetosphere.[92]

See also[edit]

  • Electronics portal
  • Energy portal
  • Electric generator
  • Goodness factor
  • Motor capacitor

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Faraday, Michael (1822). “On Some New Electro-Magnetical Motion, and on a Theory of Magnetism”. Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and a Arts. Royal Institution of Great Britain. XII: 74–96 (§IX). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  2. ^ Tom McInally, The Sixth Scottish University. The Scots Colleges Abroad: 1575 to 1799 (Brill, Leiden, 2012) p. 115
  3. ^ “The Development of a Electric Motor,”. Early Electric Motors. SparkMuseum. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  4. ^ “The initial dinamo?”. travelhungary.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Guillemin, Amédée (1891). ‘Le Magnétisme et l’Électricitée’ [Electricity and Magnetism]. trans., ed. rev. from a French by Sylvanus P. Thompson. McMillan and Co. 
  6. ^ Heller, Augustus (April 1896). “Anianus Jedlik”. Nature. Norman Lockyer. 53 (1379): 516. Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H. doi:10.1038/053516a0. 
  7. ^ Blundel, Stephen J. (2012). Magnetism A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-960120-2. 
  8. ^ Thein, M. “Elektrische Maschinen in Kraftfahrzeugen” [Electric Machines in Motor Vehicles] (PDF) (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 Sep 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |trans_title= (help)
  9. ^ “Elektrische Chronologie”. Elektrisiermaschinen im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert – Ein kleines Lexikon (“Electrical appurtenance in a 18th and 19th centuries – a tiny thesaurus”) (in German). University of Regensburg. Mar 31, 2004. Archived from the original on Jun 9, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010. 
  10. ^ “History of Batteries (inter alia)”. Electropaedia. Jun 9, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b “Battery and Energy Technologies, Technology and Applications Timeline”. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  12. ^ Richter, Jan. “Jacobi’s Motor.” Elektrotechnischen Instituts. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 7 Feb 2013. Web. 14 May 2017. https://www.eti.kit.edu/english/1382.php.
  13. ^ Gee, William (2004). “Sturgeon, William (1783–1850)”. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26748. 
  14. ^ Garrison, Ervan G. (1998). A History of Engineering and Technology: Artful Methods (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-9810-X. Retrieved May 7, 2009. 
  15. ^ Nye, David E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New Technology. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-64030-5. 
  16. ^ “Exhibition on a History of Hungarian Science”. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  17. ^ “Antonio Pacinotti”. 
  18. ^ “The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and a Men Who Invented Modern America”. 
  19. ^ “Zénobe Théophile Gramme”. Invent Now, Inc. Hall of Fame profile. Archived from the original on 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  20. ^ a b Ganot, Adolphe (1881). Elementary Treatise in Physics. Trans. and ed. from a French by E. Atkinson (14th ed.). William Wood and Co. pp. 907–908, sec. 899. 
  21. ^ “Photo of a normal form of a St. Louis motor”. Archived from the original on 2011-04-11. 
  22. ^ “Buying an Energy-Efficient Electric Motor – Fact Sheet” (PDF). USDoE. 
  23. ^ Babbage, C.; Herschel, J. F. W. (January 1825). “Account of a Repetition of M. Arago’s Experiments on a Magnetism Manifested by Various Substances during a Act of Rotation”. Philosophical Transactions of a Royal Society. 115 (0): 467–496. doi:10.1098/rstl.1825.0023. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  24. ^ Thompson, Silvanus Phillips (1895). Polyphase Electric Currents and Alternate-Current Motors (1st ed.). London: E. F.N. Spon. p. 261. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  25. ^ Baily, Walter (June 28, 1879). “A Mode of Producing Arago’s Rotation”. Philosophical magazine: A biography of theoretical, initial and unsentimental physics. Taylor Francis. 
  26. ^ a b c Vučković, Vladan (November 2006). “Interpretation of a Discovery” (PDF). The Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineers. 3 (2). Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  27. ^ a b Jonnes, Jill (2004). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and a Race to Electrify a World. Random House. p. 180. 
  28. ^ Ferraris, G. (1888). “Atti della Reale Academia delle Science di Torino”. Atti della R. Academia delle Science di Torino. XXIII: 360–375. 
  29. ^ The Case Files: Nikola Tesla. “Two-Phase Induction Motor”. The Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on 18 Nov 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  30. ^ “Galileo Ferraris Physicist, Pioneer of Alternating Current Systems (1847–1897) Inventor of a Induction Motor “Father of three-phase current” – Electrotechnical Congress, Frankfurt 1891″. Edison Tech Center. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  31. ^ Smil, Vaclav (2005). Creating a Twentieth Century:Technical Innovations of 1867–1914 and Their Lasting Impact. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-988341-7. 
  32. ^ Froehlich, Fritz E.; Kent, Allen (1 Dec 1998). The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 17 – Television Technology. CRC Press. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-0-8247-2915-8. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  33. ^ a b Drury, Bill (2001). Control Techniques Drives and Controls Handbook. Institution of Electrical Engineers. p. xiv. ISBN 978-0-85296-793-5. 
  34. ^ Langsdorf, Alexander Suss (1955). Theory of Alternating-Current Machinery (2nd ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 245. ISBN 0-07-099423-4. 
  35. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. 19. 1977. p. 518. 
  36. ^ a b “Galileo Ferraris”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  37. ^ a b “Biography of Galileo Ferraris”. Incredible People – Biographies of Famous People. Archived from the original on 2016-05-17. 
  38. ^ a b Neidhöfer, Gerhard. “Early Three-Phase Power (History)”. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. 5 (5): 88–100. doi:10.1109/MPE.2007.904752. 
  39. ^ a b Pansini, Anthony J. (1989). Basic of Electric Motors. Pennwell Publishing Company. p. 45. ISBN 0-13-060070-9. 
  40. ^ a b c d e Alger, P.L.; Arnold, R.E. (1976). “The History of Induction Motors in America”. Proceedings of a IEEE. 64 (9): 1380–1383. doi:10.1109/PROC.1976.10329. 
  41. ^ Klooster, John W. (2009). Icons of Invention: The Makers of a Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-313-34746-7. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  42. ^ Day, Lance; McNeil, Ian, eds. (1996). Biographical Dictionary of a History of Technology. London: Routledge. p. 1204. ISBN 0-203-02829-5. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  43. ^ Froehlich, Fritz E. Editor-in-Chief; Allen Kent Co-Editor (1992). The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 17 – Television Technology to Wire Antennas (First ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. p. 36. ISBN 0-8247-2902-1. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  44. ^ The Electrical Engineer (21 Sep 1888). … a new focus of a AC in a prolongation of rotary suit was finished famous roughly concurrently by twin experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and a theme has captivated ubiquitous courtesy from a fact that no commutator or tie of any kind with a armature was required .. Volume II. London: Charles Co. p. 239. 
  45. ^ Ferraris, Galileo (1885). “Electromagnetic Rotation with an Alternating Current”. Electrican. 36: 360–375. 
  46. ^ Tesla, Nikola; AIEE Trans. (1888). “A New System for Alternating Current Motors and Transformers”. AIEE. 5: 308–324. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  47. ^ Harris, William (2008). “How Did Nikola Tesla Change a Way We Use Energy?”. Howstuffworks.com. p. 3. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  48. ^ Mattox, D. M. (2003). The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology. Random House. p. 39. ISBN 0-8155-1495-6. 
  49. ^ Hughes, Thomas Parke. Networks of Power: Electrification in Western society, 1880–1930. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-8018-2873-2. 
  50. ^ “Timeline of Nikola Tesla”. Tesla Society of USA and Canada. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  51. ^ Hubbell, M.W. (2011). The Fundamentals of Nuclear Power Generation Questions Answers. Authorhouse. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4634-2441-1. 
  52. ^ VDE Committee History of Electrical Engineering IEEE German Chapter (January 2012). “150th Birthday of Michael von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky Colloquium”. 13. Archived from the original on 25 Feb 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  53. ^ Dolivo-Dobrowolsky, M. (1891). ETZ. 12: 149, 161.  Missing or dull |title= (help)
  54. ^ “How belt drives impact overhung load” (PDF). Gates Corporation. 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017. 
  55. ^ Mortensen, S. H.; Beckwith, S. (1949). “§7-1 ‘General Picture of a Synchronous Machine’ in Sec. 7 – Alternating-Current Generators and Motors”. In Knowlton, A.E. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 646-647, figs. 7-1 7-2. 
  56. ^ Hameyer, §5.1, p. 62
  57. ^ Lynn, §83, p. 812
  58. ^ Lee, Norman C. (2006). Practical Guide to Blow Moulding. iSmithers Rapra Publishing. ISBN 9781859575130. 
  59. ^ Kim, Sang-Hoon (2017-05-09). Electric Motor Control: DC, AC, and BLDC Motors. Elsevier. ISBN 9780128123195. 
  60. ^ “Variable Speed Pumping, A Guide to Successful Applications, Executive Summary” (PDF). USDOE – Europump – Hydraulic Institute. May 2004. p. 9, Fig. ES-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on Oct 27, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2018.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  61. ^ Bose, Bimal K. (2006). “Chapters 6, 7 8”. Power Electronics and Motor Drives : Advances and Trends. Academic Press. pp. see esp. 328, 397, 481. ISBN 978-0-12-088405-6. 
  62. ^ Knight, Andy. Electric Machines. U. of Alberta. Archived from the original on 18 Jul 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  63. ^ a b Hameyer, Kay (2001). “Electrical Machine I: Basics, Design, Function, Operation” (PDF). RWTH Aachen University Institute of Electrical Machines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 Feb 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  64. ^ a b Stölting, Hans-Dieter (2008). “§1.3.1.1 Motor Systematics in Chapter 1 – Introduction”. In Stölting, H. D.; Kallenbach, E.; Amrhein, W. (eds.). Handbook of Fractional-Horsepower Drives (Online ed.). Springer. p. see esp. p. 5, Table 1.1. ISBN 978-3-540-73128-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)
  65. ^ a b c d Ionel, D.M. (2010). “High-Efficiency Variable-Speed Electric Motor Drive Technologies for Energy Savings in a US Residential Sector”. 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM). IEEE. pp. 1403–1414. doi:10.1109/OPTIM.2010.5510481. 
  66. ^ a b Alger, Philip L.; et al. (1949). “§274-§287 ‘AC Commutator Motors’ sub-section of Sec. 7 – Alternating-Current Generators and Motors”. In Knowlton, A.E. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 755–763. 
  67. ^ Krishnan, R. (2008). Permanent Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motor Drives. CRC. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-8247-5384-9. 
  68. ^ a b Weiβmantel, H; Oesingmann, P.; Möckel, A. (2008). “§2.1 Motors with Commutator in Chapter 2 – Motors with Continuous Rotation”. In Stölting, H. D.; Kallenbach, E.; Amrhein, W. (eds.). Handbook of Fractional-Horsepower Drives (Online ed.). Springer. pp. 13–160. ISBN 978-3-540-73128-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)
  69. ^ Liu, Chen-Ching; et al. (1997). “§66.1 ‘Generators’ in Chapter 66 – ‘Electric Machines’ of Section 6 – ‘Energy. In Dorf, Richard C. (editor-in-chief). The Electrical Engineering Handbook (3rd ed.). CRC Press. p. 1456. ISBN 0-8493-8574-1. 
  70. ^ Nozawa, Tetsuo (2009). “Tokai University Unveils 100W DC Motor with 96% Efficiency”. Tech-On — Nikkei Electronics. 
  71. ^ Bush, Steve (2009). “Dyson vacuums 104,000 rpm brushless DC technology”. Electronics Weekly Magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-04-11. 
  72. ^ Lander, Cyril W. (1993). “§9–8 ‘Slip Ring Induction Motor Control’ in Chapter 9 – A.C. Machine Control”. Power electronics (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill 480 pages. ISBN 0-07-707714-8. 
  73. ^ a b c d e Krishnan, R. (March 1987). “Selection Criteria for Servo Motor Drives”. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. IA-23 (2): 270–275. doi:10.1109/TIA.1987.4504902. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  74. ^ Patrick, Dale R.; Fardo, Stephen W. (1997). “Chapter 11”. Rotating Electrical Machines and Power Systems (2nd ed.). Fairmont Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-88173-239-9. 
  75. ^ a b c Bose, pp. 569–570, 891
  76. ^ Fenoglio, John A.; Chin, Bessie W. C.; Cobb, Terry R. (February 1979). “A High-Quality Digital X-Y Plotter Designed for Reliability, Flexibility and Low Cost” (PDF). Hewlett-Packard Journal. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  77. ^ a b c d e Stölting, p. 9
  78. ^ a b Bose, pp. 480–481
  79. ^ Vukosavic, Slobodan; Stefanovic, Victor R. (November–December 1991). “SRM Inverter Topologies: A Comparative Evaluation”. IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications. 27 (6): 1034–1047. doi:10.1109/IAS.1990.152299. 
  80. ^ Roters, Herbert C. (January 1947). “The hysteresis engine – Advances that assent careful fractional horsepower ratings”. Trans. AIEE. 66 (1): 1419–1430. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1947.5059594. 
  81. ^ Bakshi, U. A.; Bakshi, M. V. (2009). “§9.3 ‘Hysteresis Motors’ in Chapter 9 – Special Machines”. Electrical Machines – II (4th ed.). Technical Publications Pune. ISBN 81-8431-189-3. 
  82. ^ Lendenmann, Heinz; et al. “Motoring Ahead” (PDF). Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  83. ^ Stölting, p. 10
  84. ^ Bose, p. 389
  85. ^ Kirtley, James L., Jr. (2005). “Class Notes 1: Electromagnetic Forces” (PDF). 6.6585 – Electric Machines. MIT Dept of Electrical Engineering. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  86. ^ “DC Motor Calculations, partial 1”. National Instruments. 30 Nov 2011. Archived from the original on 12 Oct 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2012. 
  87. ^ a b Dwight, Herbert B.; Fink, D. G. (1949). “§27 to §35A Electromagnetic Induction of EMF in Sec. 2 – Electric and Magnetic Circuits”. In Knowlton, A.E. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 36–41. 
  88. ^ Laithwaite, E.R. (February 1975). “Linear electric machines – A personal view”. Proceedings of a IEEE. 63 (2): 250–290. doi:10.1109/PROC.1975.9734. 
  89. ^ Patterson, D. J.; Brice, C. W.; Dougal, R. A.; Kovuri, D. (1–4 Jun 2003). “The “Goodness” of Small Contemporary Permanent Magnet Electric Machines” (PDF). Electric Machines and Drives Conference, 2003. IEMDC’03. vol. 2. IEEE. pp. 1195–1200. doi:10.1109/IEMDC.2003.1210392. 
  90. ^ Klatt, Frederick W. (September 2012). “Sensorless Real Time Control (RTC): Brushless Wound-Rotor [Synchronous] Doubly-Fed Machine”. Sensorless Control for Electrical Drives -SLED 2012. IEEE. doi:10.1109/SLED.2012.6422811. 
  91. ^ Horn, Alexander (2009-07-30). Ultra-fast Material Metrology. John Wiley Sons. ISBN 9783527627936. 
  92. ^ “Launch Assist Tethers”. www.tethers.com. Retrieved 2017-09-15. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fink, Donald G.; Beaty, H. Wayne, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, ’14th ed., McGraw-Hill, 1999, ISBN 0-07-022005-0.
  • Houston, Edwin J.; Kennelly, Arthur, Recent Types of Dynamo-Electric Machinery, American Technical Book Company 1897, published by P.F. Collier and Sons New York, 1902
  • Kuphaldt, Tony R. (2000–2006). “Chapter 13 AC MOTORS”. Lessons In Electric Circuits—Volume II. Retrieved 2006-04-11. 
  • Rosenblatt, Jack; Friedman, M. Harold, Direct and Alternating Current Machinery, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1963

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media compared to Electric motors.


Article source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_motor

پاسخ دهید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

*

code