Howard Johnson’s permanent Magnet Motor

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updated 2016-06-21

United States Patent

Johnson; Howard R.
3300 Mt. Hope Rd.,
Grass Lake, MI 49240

Filed: Dec 6, 1973

“Preferably, a comparison of armature magnets are used that are staggered with honour to any other in a instruction of armature magnet movement. Such an offsetting or towering of a armature magnets distributes a impulses of force imposed on a armature magnets and formula in a smoother concentration of army to a armature magnet producing a smoother and some-more uniform transformation of a armature component.”

this sketch is not partial of a apparent submission.

“In a rotary essence of a permanent magnet engine of a invention a stator magnets are organised in a circle, and a armature magnets stagger about a stator magnets. Means are disclosed for producing relations axial banishment between a stator and armature magnets to adjust a axial fixing thereof, and thereby umpire a bulk of a captivating army being imposed on a armature magnets. In this demeanour a speed of revolution of a rotary essence competence be regulated.”

“pay no courtesy to a ferrite graph (fig 1-4),
it belongs in some other patent!” -HJ *

Science Mechanics (Spring 1980)

“Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor”

by Jorma Hyypia

“We don’t extend patents on incessant suit machines,” pronounced a examiners during a U.S. Patent Office. “It won’t work given it violates a law of Conservation of Energy,” pronounced one physicist after another. But because, contriver Howard Johnson is not a arrange of male to be intimidated by such clearly lawful pronouncements, he now owns U.S. Patent No. 4,151,431 that describes how it is probable to beget ground power, as in a motor, regulating usually a appetite contained in a atoms of permanent magnets. That’s right. Johnson has detected how to build motors that run though an submit of electricity or any other kind of outmost energy!

The staggering inlet of a invention is obvious, generally in a universe confronting an alarming, sharpening appetite shortage. Yet contriver Johnson is not rushing to peddle his origination as a end-all resolution to world-wide appetite problems.


He has some-more vicious work to do. First, there’s a need to labour his laboratory prototypes into applicable unsentimental inclination -in sold a 5,000-watt electric appetite generator already in a building. His second and maybe some-more formidable vicious challenge: convince a horde of skeptics that his ideas are indeed practical.

Johnson, who has been coping with disbelievers for decades, can be unequivocally considerable in a face-to-face confront given he can do some-more than merely theorize; he can denote operative models that positively emanate suit regulating usually permanent magnets. When this author was urged by a editor of Science Mechanics to make a thousand mile event to Blacksburg, Virginia, to accommodate with a inventor, he went there as an “open-minded skeptic” and as a former investigate Scientist energetic not to be fooled. Within dual days, this former doubter had spin a believer. Here’s why.

Doing a Unthinkable
Howard Johnson refuses to perspective a “laws” of scholarship as somehow sacred, so doing a inconceivable and subsequent is second inlet to him. If a sold law gets in a way, he sees no mistreat in going around it for a while to see if there’s something on a other side. Johnson explains a energetic antithesis he practice from a energetic systematic village this way: “Physics is a dimensions scholarship and physicists are generally energetic to strengthen a Law of Conservation of Energy. Thus a physicists spin diversion wardens who tell us what laws we can’t violate. In this box they don’t even know what a diversion is. But they are so frightened that we and my associates are going to violate some of these laws, that they have to get to a pass to conduct us off!”

The critics contend Johnson offers a “free lunch” resolution to appetite problems, and that there can be no such thing. Johnson demurs, reminding regularly that he has never suggested that his invention provides something for nothing. He also points tummy that no one talks about a “free lunch” when deliberating descent of huge amounts of atomic appetite by means of chief reactors and atom bombs. In his mind, it’s many a same thing.

Johnson is a initial to acknowledge he doesn’t indeed know where a appetite be has tapped derives. But he postulates that a appetite competence be compared with spinning electrons, maybe in a form of a “presently unnamed atomic particle.” How do other physicists conflict to Johnson’s thought that there competence be an atomic molecule so distant ignored by chief physicists? Says Johnson: “I speculation it’s satisfactory to contend that many of them are revolted.” On a other hand, a few converted scientists, including some who are compared with vast and prestigious investigate laboratories, are intrigued adequate to advise that there should be a hunt for a answer, be it a “particle” or some other as nonetheless unsuspected evil of atomic structure.

This essay is prefaced with a foregoing brief outline of a ongoing debate so that, in integrity to a inventor, we competence all perspective his claims with open minds, even if it means proxy environment aside of loving systematic concepts until some-more finish explanations are forthcoming. The categorical doubt to be answered here and now is this: Does Johnson permanent magnet engine work?

Before providing a answer, we need to face adult to another doubt that positively nags in a minds of many readers: Is Johnson a bona fide researcher, or merely a “garage mechanic” insane inventor? As a following brief outline suggests, a inventor’s certification seem to be impeccable. Following 7 years of college and university training, Johnson worked on atomic appetite projects during Oak Ridge, did magnetics investigate for Burroughs company, and served as systematic consultant to Lukens Steel. He has participated in a growth of medical electrical products, including injection devices. For a troops he invented a ceramic scarf that creates a unstable engine generator wordless during 50 feet; this has been in prolongation for a past 18 years. His contributions to a engine courtesy include: a hysteresis brake; non-locking stop materials for anti-skid application,


new methods of restorative stop linings; and a routine of dissolving asbestos fibers. He has also worked on silencers for small motors, a super charger, and has polished a 92-pole no-brush generator to go in a circle of Lincoln automobiles as a transformation control; that final intent reduced a cost to one-eighth of a cost of an progressing pattern by utilizing metal-filled plastics for a armature and field. In all, Johnson is connected with some-more than 30 patents in a fields of chemistry and physics.

Sticky Tape Scientist
Despite his considerable credentials, this pleasant and unobtrusive contriver likes to impersonate himself as a “Sticky tape” scientist. He sees no trait in wasting time building fancy, elaborate apparatus when some-more elementary assemblies offer as good to exam new ideas. The antecedent inclination shown in a photographs in this essay were fabricated with gummy fasten and aluminum foil, a after component being used especially to keep individual, permanent magnets finished together so that they do not fly apart.

Perhaps a best approach to report what these 3 gadgets do is by reciting this writer’s personal practice during a talk demonstration. That approach we will not merely be revelation what a contriver says they do, though we will exhibit what happened when we attempted a experiments myself. When we start articulate about how and given a things work as they do, good have to rest on a inventor’s explanations.

The initial intent consists of some-more than a dozen foil-wrapped magnets fabricated to form a extended arc. Each magnet is extended ceiling somewhat during any finish to form a low U-shape, a improved to combine captivating fields where they are needed. The altogether span of a mass of magnets apparently has no sold stress usually to uncover that a stretch between these stator magnets and a relocating car is not critical. A pure cosmetic square atop this magnet public supports a length of cosmetic indication tyrannise track. The vehicle, fundamentally a indication tyrannise flatcar, supports a foil-wrapped span of winding magnets, and some arrange of weight, in some cases merely a rock. The weight is indispensable to keep a car down on a track, conflicting a absolute captivating army that would differently lift it askew. That ‘is all there is to a construction of this painting of a “linear motor.”

I was prepared to rise eye aria in an bid to detect some arrange of suit in a vehicle. we need not have been concerned. The impulse a contriver let go of a car be delicately placed during one finish of a track, it accelerated and literally zipped from one finish to a other and flew onto a floor! Wow!

I attempted a examination myself, and could feel a absolute captivating army during work as we placed a car on a track. we kindly eased a car to a vicious starting point, holding good caring not to strive any kind of brazen push,


even inadvertently. we let go, Zip! It was on a building again, during a other finish of a track. Knowing that we would be asked if a lane competence have had a slant, we topsy-turvy a car and started it from a conflicting finish of a track. It worked usually as effectively in a retreat direction. In fact, a car can even navigate a vicious upgrade. In light of these tests, and deliberation a conspicuous speed of a vehicle, we can bonus any thought that this was a elementary “coasting” effect.

Incidentally, a sketch shows a car about half ways along a track. It was “frozen” there by a electronic peep used to make a picture; there is no approach of “posing” a car in that position brief of restraining it down.

The second device has a U-shaped magnets station on finish in a severe round arrangement infrequently suggestive of England’s Stonehenge. This public is mounted on a pure cosmetic square upheld on a plywood quarrel pivoted, underneath, on a giveaway branch circle performed from a skateboard. As instructed, we eased a 8-ounce focusing magnet into a ring of incomparable magnets, gripping it during slightest 4 inches divided from a ring. The 40 bruise magnet public immediately began to spin and accelerated to a unequivocally vicious rotating speed that it confirmed for as prolonged as a focusing magnet was reason in a captivating field. When a focusing magnet was reversed, a vast public incited in a conflicting direction.

Since this public is clearly a wanton arrange of motor, there’s no doubt that it is indeed probable to erect a engine powered usually by permanent magnets.

The third assembly, that looks like a skeleton of some antiquated sea creature, consists of a hovel assembled of rubber magnet component that can be simply focussed to form rings. This was one of a proof models Johnson took to a U.S. Patent Office during his interest proceedings. Normally a apparent examiners spend usually a few mins with any apparent applicant, though played with Johnson’s inclination for a improved partial of an hour. As a contriver was leaving, he overheard one sideline spectator remark: “How would we like to follow that act?!”

It took Johnson about 6 years of authorised hassling to finally obtain his patent, and he has been congratulated for his ultimate attainment over apparent bureau bureaucracy as good as for his inventiveness. One pointer that he left a apparent bureau some-more than a small jarred by a knowledge was a inclusion of diagrammatic component in a printed apparent that does not go there. So if we demeanour adult a patent, compensate no courtesy to a “ferrite” graph on a initial page; it belongs in some other patent!

The hovel device of march worked unequivocally good in a inventor’s bureau during my revisit nonetheless Johnson celebrated that a rubber magnets are maybe a thousand times weaker than a cobalt samarium magnets used a other assemblies. There’s usually one large problem with a some-more absolute magnets: they cost too much. According to a inventor, a magnets used to erect a Stonehenge rotating indication are collectively value some-more than one thousand dollars. But there’s no need to count usually on mass-production economies to pierce a cost down to rival levels. Johnson and U.S. Magnets and Alloy Co. are in a routine of building alternative, comparatively low cost captivating materials that perform unequivocally well.

How do they work? The sketch


that shows a winding “arcuate” armature magnet in 3 unbroken positions over a line of organisation stator magnets provides during slightest rarely simplified insights into a speculation of permanent magnet ground appetite generation. Johnson says winding magnets with pointy heading and trailing edges are vicious given they concentration and combine a captivating appetite many some-more effectively than do blunt-end magnets. These arcuate magnets are finished somewhat longer than a lengths of dual stator magnets and a inserted space, in Johnson’s setups about 3-1/8 inches long.

Note that a stator magnets all have their North faces upward, and that they are resting on a high captivating permeability support image that helps combine a force fields. The best opening between a finish poles of a armature magnet and a stator magnets appears to be about 3/8 inch.

As a armature north stick passes over a magnet, it is detered by a stator north pole; and there’s an captivate when a north stick is flitting over a space between a stator magnets. The accurate conflicting is of march loyal with honour to a armature South pole. It is captivated when flitting over a stator magnet, detered when flitting over a space.

The several captivating army that come into play are intensely complex, though a sketch shows some of a elemental relationships. Solid lines paint captivate forces, dashed lines paint abhorrence forces, and double lines in any box prove a some-more widespread forces.

As a tip sketch indicates, a heading (N) stick of a armature is detered by a north poles of a dual adjacent magnets. But, during a indicated position of a armature magnet, these dual nauseating army .(which apparently work conflicting any other), are not identical; a stronger of a dual army (double dashed line) overpowers a other force and tends to pierce a armature to a left.


This left transformation is extended by a captivate force between a armature north stick and a stator south stick during a bottom of a space between a stator magnets.

But that’s not all! Let’s see what is function concurrently during a other finish (S) of a armature magnet. The length of this magnet (about 3-1/8 inches) is chosen, in propinquity to a pairs of stator in magnets and a space between them, so that once again a attraction/repulsion army work to pierce a armature magnet to a left. In this box a armature stick (S) is captivated by a north surfaces of a adjacent stator magnets but, given of a vicious armature dimensioning, some-more strongly by a magnet (double plain line) that tends to “pull” a armature to a left. It overpowers a obtuse “drag” outcome of a stator magnet to a right. Here also there is a combined advantage of, in this case, abhorrence force between a south stick of a armature and a south stick in a space between a stator magnets.

The significance of scold dimensioning of a armature magnet can't be over-emphasized. If it is presumably too prolonged or too short, it could grasp an unattractive balance condition that would box movement. The pattern is to optimize all force conditions to rise a biggest probable off-balance condition, though always’ in a same instruction as a armature magnet moves along a quarrel of stator magnets. However, if a armature is rotated 180 degrees and started during a conflicting finish of a track, it would act in accurately a same demeanour usually that it would, in this example, pierce from left to right. Also note that once a armature is in motion, it has transformation that helps lift it into a globe of change of a subsequent span of magnets where it gets another lift and pull, and additional momentum.

Complex Forces
Some unequivocally formidable captivating army are apparently during play in this deceptively elementary captivating system, and during this time it is unfit to rise a mathematical indication of what indeed occurs. However, mechanism research of a system, conducted by Professor William Harrison and his associates during Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Blacksburg, VA), yield vicious feedback information that severely helps in a bid to optimize these formidable army to grasp a many fit probable handling design.

As Professor Harrison points out, in further to a apparent communication between a dual poles of a armature magnet and a stator magnets, many other interactions are in play. The stator magnets impact any other and a support plate. Magnet distances and their strengths change notwithstanding best efforts of manufacturers to practice peculiarity controls. In a public of a operative model, there are unavoidable differences between plane and straight atmosphere spaces. All these related factors contingency be optimized, that is given mechanism research in this excellence theatre is vital. It’s a kind of information feedback system. As changes are finished in a earthy design, discerning energetic measurements are finished to see presumably a approaching formula have indeed been achieved. The ‘new mechanism information is afterwards used to rise new changes in a pattern of a initial model. And so on, and on.

That unequivocally conflicting captivating conditions exist during a dual ends of a armature is shown by a tangible initial information displayed in a list and compared graph. To obtain this information, a researchers initial upheld a examine of an instrument used to magnitude captivating margin strengths over a stator magnets and a inserted spaces. We shall call this a “Zero” turn nonetheless there is a unequivocally small opening between a examine and a tops of a stator magnets. These measurements in outcome prove what any stick of a armature magnet “sees” subsequent as it passes over. a stator magnets.

Next a examine is changed to a position usually underneath one of a armature poles, during a tip of a 3/8-inch armature-to-stator atmosphere gap. Another set of captivating suit measurements is made. The procession is steady with a examine positioned usually underneath a other armature pole.

Now “Instinct” competence suggest, and rightly so, that a suit measurements during a tip and bottom of a atmosphere opening will differ. But if “instinct” also suggests that these differences are flattering many a same during a dual armature stick positions, we would be unequivocally many in error!

First investigate a dual tables that uncover tangible suit firmness measurements. Note that in this sold examination a sum captivating suit amounted to 30,700 Gauss (the territory of captivating strength) when a examine was reason during a “Zero” turn underneath a north stick of a magnet, and a sum of 28,700 Gauss when a examine was changed to a tip of a 3/8-inch atmosphere gap. The disproportion between these sum ‘measurements is 2,000 Gauss.

Similar readings finished during a atmosphere opening between a south stick of a armature and a stator magnets indicates a sum suit during “Zero” turn of 33,725 Gauss, and 24,700 Gauss during a tip of a atmosphere gap. This time a disproportion is a many incomparable 9,025 Gauss, or 4 and one half times larger than for a north pole! Clearly, a captivating force conditions are distant from matching during a dual ends of a armature magnet.

The center 5 pairs of total from any list hive been plotted in striking form to make these differences some-more obvious. In a tip “South Pole” graph a dashed line connects, a “Zero” turn readings finished over a stator magnets and over a inserted atmosphere spaces. Points along a plain line prove allied readings finished with a examine usually underneath a armature south pole. It is easy to see that there is an normal 43% rebate of a captivate between a armature and stator magnets combined by a atmosphere gap. Equally true, though maybe not so obvious, is a fact that there is an normal 36% boost of abhorrence when a south stick of a armature passes over a spaces between a stator magnets. The commission boost usually seems smaller given it relates to a many smaller “Zero” turn value.

The second graph shows that a changes are many reduction thespian during a north stick of a armature. In this box there’s an normal 11.7% diminution of captivate over a spaces, and a 2.4% increase, of abhorrence when a armature north stick passes over a stator magnets.

As we investigate a data, be certain to note that a columns are labeled differently. In a box of a north stick data, a stator magnet areas rebuff a armature north stick while a spaces between a stator magnets attract. The conditions are accurately a conflicting for a south stick of a armature magnet. When a south stick passes over a magnet, there is clever attraction; when it passes over a space, there is repulsion.

The Ultimate Motor
A engine formed on Johnson’s commentary would be of intensely elementary pattern compared to required motors. As shown in a diagrams grown from Johnson’s apparent literature, a stator/base territory would enclose a ring of spaced magnets corroborated by a high captivating permeability sleeve. Three arcuate armature magnets would be mounted in a armature that has a belt slit for appetite transmission. The armature is upheld on round orientation on a missile that presumably screws or slides into a stator unit. Speed control and start/stop transformation would be achieved by a elementary means of relocating a armature toward and divided from a stator section.

There is a conspicuous pulsing transformation in a elementary antecedent units that competence be unattractive in a unsentimental motor. The transformation can be smoothed, a contriver believes, by simply regulating dual or some-more staggered armature magnets as shown in another drawing.

What’s Ahead?
For contriver Howard Johnson and his permanent magnet appetite source there’s organisation to be copiousness of controversy, certainly, though also progress. A 5000 watt electric generator powered by a permanent magnet engine is already on a way, and Johnson has organisation chartering agreements with during slightest 4 companies during this writing.

Will we see permanent magnet motors in automobiles in a circuitously future? Johnson wants zero to do with Detroit during this time because, as he puts it: “It’;s too romantic – we’d get crushed into a earth!” The contriver is equally demure to make predictions about other applications as well, especially given he usually wants time to ideal his ideas and, hopefully, get a systematic investiture to during slightest cruise his unusual ideas with a some-more open mind.

For example, Johnson argues that a captivating army in a permanent magnet paint superconductance that is same to phenomena routinely compared usually with intensely cold superconducting systems. He argues that a magnet is a room heat superconducting complement given a nucleus upsurge does not cease, and given this nucleus upsurge can be finished to do work. And for those who pooh- pooh a thought that permanent magnets do work, Johnson has an answer: “You come along with a magnet and collect adult a square of iron, afterwards some physicist says we didn’t do any work given we used that magnet. But we changed a mass by a distance. Right? That’s work that requires energy. Or we can reason one magnet in a atmosphere indefinitely by positioning it over another magnet with like poles facing. The physicist will disagree that given it involves captivating repulsion, no work is done. Yet if we support a same intent with air, they will determine in a notation that work is done!”

There’s no doubt in Johnson’s mind that he has succeeded in extracting serviceable appetite from a atoms of permanent magnets. But does that indicate that a nucleus spins and compared phenomena that he thinks yield this appetite will eventually be used up? Johnson creates no disguise of meaningful a answer: we didn’t start a nucleus spins, and we don’t know any approach to stop them – do you? They competence eventually stop, though that is not my problem.”

Johnson still has many unsentimental problems to solve to ideal his invention. But his larger plea competence be to win ubiquitous acceptance of his ideas by an apparently shaken systematic village in that many physicists sojourn compulsive about fortifying a law of Conservation of Energy though ever wondering presumably that “law” unequivocally needs defending.

The quandary confronting Johnson is not unequivocally his quandary though rather that of other scientists who have celebrated his prototypes. The inclination apparently do work. But a textbooks contend it shouldn’t work. And all that Johnson is unequivocally observant to a systematic village is this: here is a materialisation that seems to protest some of a normal beliefs. For all a sakes let’s not boot it undisguised though take a time to know a formidable army during work here.



All a apparent drawings are shown above;
See a rest of a apparent during


where we found a Science and Mechanics essay and more:

some-more information also at:


Tom Bearden’s Tips on Building a H.J. Motor

From: “Karl”, krlbrgmnn @
To: “Sterling D. Allan,” sterlingda @
Sent: Thursday, Dec 19, 2002 2:01 PM
Subject: Truth about Howard Johnson and his motor


Just a discerning note to let we know we spoke to Tom Bearden currently and, per a matter on your webpage by your “anonymous source” who pronounced “Howard Johnson never was means to get a rotary chronicle to work. He was usually means to get a linear chronicle working, and there were some questions about a viability.”, Tom pronounced such a chairman doesn’t know what they are articulate about. I’d contend Tom is in a best position to know, given he and Howard have been friends for decades and Howard has privately brought a functional, rotary PMM to Tom’s house, and they’ve played with it for hours. Next to Howard himself, I’d cruise Tom to be a best apparatus on a theme of HJ’s PMM.

He also pronounced that Howard is still operative on removing another functioning territory assembled (he’s had countless setbacks over a years after his operative territory was vandalized by thieves that pennyless into Howard’s emporium and stole usually a magnets off that model, withdrawal many $K value of other component circuitously untouched). Howard is still plugging divided any day, during over 70 years old, though his wife’s health problems are gripping him busy. However, he has gotten bending adult with a respectable, honest businessman who is financing him and Howard also now has some younger assistance to do a grunt work that is apropos worse for him. All in all, Tom hopes to see some genuine swell being finished for Howard in a subsequent year or so.

Tom mentioned that there are a few vicious things that anyone who wants to successfully build a operative HJ PMM needs to know, some of that are substantially apparent to a some-more gifted builders:

1) The many vicious component is a accurate machining of a magnets. Joe Q. Public, with his solid saw, slicing his possess magnets by palm has small possibility of subsequent in moulding a magnets to a aerospace-critical specs that are a smallest necessary, many reduction duplicating that attainment several times for any required part.

2) Alignment of a tools is rarely vicious too. One slight misalignment and a engine will not run continuously.

3) All magnets aren’t a same. This concentration requires expensive, intensely high peculiarity magnets. Howard, in sequence to get them cheaper, was shopping them in $50K lots from China, where high peculiarity and a reduce cost can be had.

I also spoke with a lady named Gary Hanson who had been in hold with Howard years ago when Gary was perplexing to build Howard’s motor. Howard told him, as we consider many researchers on this know now, that a engine *can* be build directly from a apparent though that there needs to be 5 or 6 armtures and not usually a one that is shown as an painting in a patent. Just wish to make certain any newbies know this.

I wish some of this has helped transparent adult any misunderstandings for those of us meddlesome in building a organic HJ PMM. My opinion is that, if we wish to do it right, go to a horse’s mouth (Howard) or else as tighten as we can presumably get (Tom). Hopefully, doing so will capacitate us to make this engine a reality.

Regards, Karl



some-more information on a H.J. magnet engine – several builders

List of several magnet motors – and a few others at

a box of steady termination !

“Howard is still operative on removing another functioning territory assembled (he’s had countless setbacks over a years after his operative territory was vandalized by thieves that pennyless into Howard’s emporium and stole usually a magnets off that model, withdrawal many $K value of other component circuitously untouched).”

Here we have a good documented box of a male who succeeded in building a permanent magnet motor.
It is unsatisfactory that a magnets are so formidable to figure (?) rightly that even he could not emanate a second set.


Howard Robert Johnson was innate in 1919 in Pound, Virginia, USA, and died Jan. 2, 2008 in Blacksburg, VA. He is a researcher and contriver of an all magnet motor, that complicated production deigns impossible. The device generates motion, presumably rotary or linear, from zero though permanent magnets in rotor as good as stator, behaving conflicting any other. In his invention (called a “Permanent Magnet Motor”), a permanent magnet armature is magnetically propelled along a guided trail by communication with a margin within a suit section singular on presumably side of a trail by an arrangement of permanent stator magnets.

The unaccepted “father of spintronics,” colonize researcher Howard Johnson began questioning draw in 1942 as a connoisseur tyro during Vanderbilt University, study Bohr’s work on a electron.

The permanent magnet engine was recognised by Howard Johnson someday after a 1940s.

He perceived U.S. Patent 4151431 (G.patent; PDF) on Apr 24, 1979. The United States Patent bureau categorical sequence of his 4151431 apparent is as a “electrical generator or engine structure, dynamoelectric, linear”.




For potentially easy ways to build elementary magnet motors, see a page

A Few Magnet Motors


Alfred Hubbard’s Generator

Tesla’s Electric Car

Tesla, Radiant Energy, page 1

Tesla’s Biography

Tesla’s Unk. Manuscript

Run Your Car On Vapors



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