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نوشته شده در موضوع تولید انرژی رایگان در 20 ژانویه 2017

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Abstract

The use of solar appetite in thermal desalination processe s is one of a many earnest applications of a renewable energies. Solar desalination can possibly be direct; use solar appetite to furnish essence directly in a solar collector, or indirect; mixing compulsory desalination techniques, such as multistage peep desalination (MSF), fog application (VC), retreat inhalation (RO), aspect resolution (MD) and electrodialysis, with solar collectors for feverishness generation. Di rect solar desalination compared with a surreptitious technologies requires immeasurable land areas and has a comparatively lo w productivity. It is however rival to a surreptitious desalination plants in small-scale prolongation due to a comparatively low cost and simplicity. This paper describes several desalination technologies in blurb and commander stages of developmen t. The primary thoroughness is on those technologies suitable for use in remote areas, generally those that coul d be integrated into solar thermal appetite systems. Keywords: Solar energy; Desalination; Solar stills

1. Introduction

The miss of beverage H2O poses a immeasurable problem in dull regions of a universe where freshwater is apropos really wanting and expensive. Clean drink- ing H2O is one of a many critical general health issues today. Th e areas with a severest H2O shortages are a comfortable dull countries in a Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. These areas are characterized by a boost in belligerent H2O salinity and sparse rainfall. The augmenting universe race expansion together with a augmenting indu strial and farming activities all over a universe contributes to a lassitude and wickedness of freshwater resources. Desalination is one of mankind’s beginning forms of H2O treatment, and it is still a renouned diagnosis resolution via a wo rld today. In nature, solar desalination produces sleet when solar radi- ation is engrossed by a sea and causes H2O to evaporate. The evaporated H2O rises above a aspect and is changed by a wind. Once this fog cools down to a dew point, precipitation occurs,and a freshwater comes down as rain. This simple routine is obliged for a hydrologic cycle. This same element is us ed in all synthetic distil- lation systems regulating altern ative sources of heating and cooling. Desalination uses a immeasurable volume of appetite to mislay a apportionment of pristine H2O from a salt H2O source. Salt H2O (feed water) is fed into a process, and a outcome is one outlay tide of pristine H2O and another of wastewater with a high salt concentration. It has been estimated by Kalogirou [23] that a prolongation of 1000 m 3 per day of freshwater requires 10,000 tons of oil per year. This is rarely poignant as it involves a memorable appetite responsibility that few of a water-short areas of a universe can afford. Large blurb desalination plants regulating hoary fuel are in use in a series of oil-rich countries to addition a normal sources of H2O supply. People in many other areas of a universe have conjunction a income nor oil resources to concede them to rise on a identical manner. Problems applicable to a use of hoary fuels, in part, could be resolved by deliberation probable function of renewable resources such as solar, biomass, wind, or geothermal energy. It mostly happens that a geographical areas where H2O is indispensable are good means with renewable appetite sources (RES). Thus, a apparent approach is to mix those renewable appetite sources to a desalination plant, in sequence to yield H2O resources as required. In fact, many building countries, with immeasurable areas yet carrying no entrance to electric grid, seem to be good capable in renewable energies. Such sources, means to be used directly even during distant remote and removed areas, could be exploited to appetite low to middle scale desalina- tion plants. The World H ealth Organization esti- friends that over a billion people miss entrance to purified celebration H2O and a immeasurable infancy of these people are vital in farming areas where a low race firmness a nd remote locations make it really formidable to implement a normal purify H2O solutions. Recently, substantial courtesy has been given to a use of renewable appetite as sources for desalination, individual ly in remote areas and islands, given of a high costs of hoary fuels, problems in receiving it, attempts to preserve hoary fuels, seductiveness in shortening atmosphere pollution, and a miss of electrical appetite in remote areas. It is, however, to be remarkable that in annoy of a aforesaid auspicious characteristics, a renewable appetite grant to cover appetite approach worldwide, yet increasing, is still marginal. Aside from a hydroelectric energy, a ot her principal resources (solar, wind, geothermal) cover together small some-more than 1% of a appetite prolongation worldwide [9]. Owing to a disband inlet of solar energy, a categorical problems with a use of solar thermal appetite in large-scale desalination plants are a comparatively low capability rate, a low thermal potency and a consid erable land area required. However, given solar desalination plants are char- acterized by giveaway appetite and considerate opera- tion cost, this record is, on a other hand, suitable for small-scale production, generally in remote dull areas and islands, where a supply of compulsory appetite is wanting [28]. Apart from a cost implications, there are environmental concerns with courtesy to a blazing of hoary fuels. The coupling of renewable appetite sources with desalination processes is seen by some as carrying a intensity to offer a tolerable track for augmenting a reserve of beverage water. Solar appetite can directly or indirectly be har- nessed for desalination. Collection systems that use solar appetite to furnish di stillate directly in a solar gourmet are called approach collection systems since systems that mix solar appetite col- lection systems with co nventional desalination systems are called indir ect systems. In surreptitious systems, solar appetite is used possibly to beget a feverishness compulsory for desalination and/or to beget electricity that is used to yield a compulsory electric appetite for conven tional desalination plants such as multi-effect (ME), multi-stage peep (MSF) or retreat inhalation (RO) systems [16].

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