Howard Johnson: Permanent Magnet Motor

نوشته شده در موضوع تولید انرژی رایگان در 08 دسامبر 2016

Science Mechanics  (Spring
1980) 

“Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor”

by
Jorma Hyypia

“We don’t extend patents on incessant suit machines,” said
a examiners during a U.S. Patent Office. “It won’t work
given it violates a law of Conservation of Energy,” said
one physicist after another. But because, contriver Howard
Johnson is not a arrange of male to be intimidated by such
clearly lawful pronouncements, he now owns U.S.
Patent No. 4,151,431 that describes how it is probable to
beget ground power, as in a motor, regulating usually a energy
contained in a atoms of permanent magnets. That’s right.
Johnson has detected how to build motors that run nonetheless an
submit of electricity or any other kind of outmost energy!

The towering inlet of a invention is obvious, especially
in a universe opposed an alarming, sharpening appetite shortage. Yet
contriver Johnson is not rushing to peddle his origination as the
end-all resolution to world- far-reaching appetite problems. He has more
vicious work to do. First, there’s a need to labour his
laboratory prototypes into applicable unsentimental inclination -in
sole a 5,000-watt electric appetite generator already in
a building. His second and maybe some-more formidable major
challenge: convince a horde of skeptics that his ideas are
indeed practical.

Johnson, who has been coping with disbelievers for decades,
can be unequivocally estimable in a face-to-face confront given he
can not do some-more than merely theorize; he can demonstrate
operative models that positively emanate suit regulating only
permanent magnets. When this author was urged by a editor of
Science Mechanics to make a thousand mile event to
Blacksburg, Virginia, to accommodate with a inventor, he went there
as an “open-minded skeptic” and as a former investigate Scientist
energetic not to be fooled. Within dual days, this former
doubter had spin a believer. Here’s why.

Doing a Unthinkable

Howard Johnson refuses to perspective a “laws” of scholarship as
somehow sacred, so doing a inconceivable and subsequent is
second inlet to him. If a sole law gets in a way, he
sees no mistreat in going around it for a while to see if there’s
something on a other side. Johnson explains a persistent
antithesis he use from a energetic scientific
village this way: “Physics is a measure scholarship and
physicists are generally energetic to strengthen a “Law” of
Conservation of Energy. Thus a physicists spin game
wardens who tell us what laws’ we can’t violate. In this case
they don’t even know what a diversion is. But they are so scared
that we and my associates are going to violate some of these
laws, that they have to get to a pass to conduct us off!”

The critics contend Johnson offers a “free lunch” resolution to
appetite problems, and that there can be no such thing. Johnson
demurs, reminding regularly that he has never suggested that
his invention provides something for nothing. He also points
tummy that no one talks about a “free lunch” when discussing
descent of huge amounts of atomic appetite by means of
chief reactors and atom bombs. In his mind, it’s many the
same thing.

Johnson is a initial to acknowledge he doesn’t indeed know where
a appetite be has tapped derives. But he postulates that the
appetite competence be compared with spinning electrons, maybe in
a form of a “presently unnamed atomic particle.” How do
other physicists conflict to Johnson’s suspicion that there may
be an atomic molecule so distant abandoned by chief physicists?
Says Johnson: “I speculation itrsquo;s satisfactory to contend that many of
them are revolted.” On a other hand, a few converted
scientists, including some who are compared with vast and
prestigious investigate laboratories, are intrigued adequate to
advise that there should be a hunt for a answer, be it a
“particle” or some other as nonetheless unsuspected evil of
atomic structure.

This essay is prefaced with a foregoing brief outline of
a ongoing debate so that, in integrity to a inventor,
we competence all perspective his claims with open minds, even if it means
proxy environment aside of loving systematic concepts until
some-more finish explanations are forthcoming. The categorical question
to be answered here and now is this: Does Johnson permanent
magnet engine work?

Before providing a answer, we need to face adult to another
doubt that positively nags in a minds of many readers:
Is Johnson a bona fide researcher, or merely a “garage
mechanic” insane inventor? As a following brief summary
suggests, a inventor’s certification seem to be impeccable.
Following 7 years of college and university training,
Johnson worked on atomic appetite projects during Oak Ridge, did
magnetics investigate for Burroughs company, and served as
systematic consultant to Lukens Steel. He has participated in
a growth of medical electrical products, including
injection devices. For a troops he invented a ceramic
scarf that creates a unstable engine generator wordless during 50
feet; this has been in prolongation for a past 18 years. His
contributions to a engine attention include: a hysteresis
brake; non-locking stop materials for anti- transformation application,
new methods of restorative stop linings; and a routine of
dissolving asbestos fibers. He has also worked on silencers
for tiny motors, a super charger, and has polished a 92-pole
no-brush generator to go in a round of Lincoln automobiles
as a transformation control; that final intent reduced a cost to
one-eighth of a cost of an progressing pattern by utilizing
metal-filled plastics for a armature and field. In all,
Johnson is connected with some-more than 30 patents in a fields
of chemistry and physics.

Figures 2, 3 4: Magnet Motor Models ~ Pictured here
are 3 of a inventor’s early models. Top left is a
linear engine that propels a captivating automobile during high speeds
by a array of rings. Top right is rotary engine upon
that a antecedent will be built. The 8-ounce manget, hand
reason to a vast ring weighing 40 pounds, provides enough
force to spin a whole assembly. In a third assembly
above, a automobile is propelled, in presumably direction, by the
force of a vast magnets organised subsequent tracks.

Sticky Tape Scientist

Despite his estimable credentials, this pleasant and
unobtrusive contriver likes to impersonate himself as a
“Sticky tape” scientist. He sees no trait in wasting time
building fancy, elaborate apparatus when some-more simple
assemblies offer as good to exam new ideas. The prototype
inclination shown in a photographs in this essay were
fabricated with gummy fasten and aluminum foil, a later
member being used especially to keep individual, permanent
magnets finished together so that they do not fly apart.

Perhaps a best approach to report what these 3 gadgets do
is by reciting this writer’s personal use during the
talk demonstration. That approach we will not merely be telling
what a contriver says they do, nonetheless we will vaunt what
happened when we attempted a experiments myself. When we start
articulate about how and given a things work as they do, well
have to rest on a inventorrsquo;s explanations.

The initial intent consists of some-more than a dozen foil-wrapped
magnets fabricated to form a extended arc. Each magnet is extended
ceiling rather during any finish to form a low U-shape, a better
to combine captivating fields where they are needed. The
altogether span of a mass of magnets apparently has no
sole stress usually to uncover that a distance
between these stator magnets and a relocating automobile is not
critical. A pristine cosmetic block atop this magnet
public supports a length of cosmetic indication tyrannise track.
The vehicle, fundamentally a indication tyrannise flatcar, supports a
foil-wrapped span of winding magnets, and some arrange of weight,
in some cases merely a rock. The weight is indispensable to keep the
automobile down on a track, conflicting a absolute magnetic
army that would differently lift it askew. That ‘is all there
is to a construction of this painting of a “linear
motor.”

I was prepared to rise eye aria in an bid to detect
some arrange of suit in a vehicle. we need not have been
concerned. The impulse a contriver let go of a automobile be
delicately placed during one finish of a track, it accelerated and
literally zipped from one finish to a other and flew onto the
floor! Wow!

I attempted a examination myself, and could feel a powerful
captivating army during work as we placed a automobile on a track.
we kindly eased a automobile to a vicious starting point,
holding good caring not to strive any kind of brazen push, even
inadvertently. we let go, Zip! It was on a building again, at
a other finish of a track. Knowing that we would be asked if
a lane competence have had a slant, we topsy-turvy a automobile and
started it from a conflicting finish of a track. It worked just
as effectively in a retreat direction. In fact, a vehicle
can even navigate a vicious upgrade. In light of these
tests, and deliberation a conspicuous speed of a vehicle,
we can bonus any suspicion that this was a facile “coasting”
effect.

Incidentally, a sketch shows a automobile about half
ways along a track. It was “frozen” there by a electronic
peep used to make a picture; there is no approach of “posing”
a automobile in that position brief of restraining it down.

The second device has a U-shaped magnets station on finish in
a severe round arrangement infrequently suggestive of England’s
Stonehenge. This public is mounted on a pristine plastic
block upheld on a plywood quarrel pivoted, underneath, on a
giveaway branch round performed from a skateboard. As instructed,
we eased a 8-ounce focusing magnet into a ring of larger
magnets, gripping it during slightest 4 inches divided from a ring.
The 40 bruise magnet public immediately began to spin and
accelerated to a unequivocally vicious rotating speed that it
confirmed for as prolonged as a focusing magnet was reason in the
captivating field. When a focusing magnet was reversed, the
vast public incited in a conflicting direction.

Since this public is clearly a wanton arrange of motor, there’s
no doubt that it is indeed probable to erect a motor
powered usually by permanent magnets.

The third assembly, that looks like a skeleton of some
antiquated sea creature, consists of a hovel assembled of
rubber magnet member that can be simply focussed to form rings.
This was one of a proof models Johnson took to the
U.S. Patent Office during his interest proceedings. Normally the
apparent examiners spend usually a few mins with any patent
applicant, nonetheless played with Johnsonrsquo;s inclination for the
softened prejudiced of an hour. As a contriver was leaving, he
overheard one sideline spectator remark: “How would we like to
follow that act?!”

It took Johnson about 6 years of authorised hassling to finally
obtain his patent, and he has been congratulated for his
ultimate attainment over apparent bureau bureaucracy as good as for
his inventiveness. One pointer that he left a apparent office
some-more than a tiny jarred by a trust was a inclusion
of diagrammatic member in a printed apparent that does not
go there. So if we demeanour adult a patent, compensate no attention
to a “ferrite” graph on a initial page; it belongs in some
other patent!

The hovel device of march worked unequivocally good in the
inventor’s bureau during my revisit nonetheless Johnson observed
that a rubber magnets are maybe a thousand times weaker
than a cobalt samarium magnets used a other assemblies.
There’s usually one vast problem with a some-more absolute magnets:
they cost too much. According to a inventor, a magnets
used to erect a Stonehenge rotating indication are
collectively value some-more than one thousand dollars. But there’s
no need to count usually on mass-production economies to bring
a cost down to rival levels. Johnson and U.S. Magnets
and Alloy Co. are in a routine of building alternative,
comparatively low cost captivating materials that perform unequivocally well.

How do they work?

The sketch that shows a winding “arcuate” armature magnet in
3 unbroken positions over a line of organisation stator magnets
provides during slightest rarely simplified insights into a theory
of permanent magnet ground appetite generation. Johnson says
winding magnets with pointy heading and trailing edges are
vicious given they thoroughness and combine a magnetic
appetite many some-more effectively than do blunt-end magnets. These
arcuate magnets are finished rather longer than a lengths of
dual stator magnets and a inserted space, in Johnson’s
setups about 3-1/8 inches long.

Note that a stator magnets all have their North faces
upward, and that they are resting on a high magnetic
permeability support picture that helps combine a force
fields. The best opening between a finish poles of a armature
magnet and a stator magnets appears to be about 3/8 inch.

As a armature north stick passes over a magnet, it is
detered by a stator north pole; and there’s an attraction
when a north stick is flitting over a space between a stator
magnets. The accurate conflicting is of march loyal with honour to
a armature South pole. It is captivated when flitting over a
stator magnet, detered when flitting over a space.

The several captivating army that come into play are extremely
complex, nonetheless a sketch shows some of a fundamental
relationships. Solid lines paint captivate forces, dashed
lines paint abhorrence forces, and double lines in each
box infer a some-more widespread forces.

As a tip sketch indicates, a heading (N) stick of the
armature is detered by a north poles of a dual adjacent
magnets. But, during a indicated position of a armature
magnet, these dual nauseating army .(which apparently work
conflicting any other), are not identical; a stronger of the
dual army (double dashed line) overpowers a other force and
tends to pierce a armature to a left. This left transformation is
extended by a captivate force between a armature north
stick and a stator south stick during a bottom of a space
between a stator magnets.

But that’s not all! Let’s see what is happening
concurrently during a other finish (S) of a armature magnet.
The length of this magnet (about 3-1/8 inches) is chosen, in
propinquity to a pairs of stator in magnets and a space
between them, so that once again a attraction/repulsion
army work to pierce a armature magnet to a left. In this
box a armature stick (S) is captivated by a north surfaces
of a adjacent stator magnets but, given of a critical
armature dimensioning, some-more strongly by a magnet (double
plain line) that tends to “pull” a armature to a left. It
overpowers a obtuse “drag” outcome of a stator magnet to
a right. Here also there is a total advantage of, in this
case, abhorrence force between a south stick of a armature
and a south stick in a space between a stator magnets.

The significance of scold dimensioning of a armature magnet
can't be over-emphasized. If it is presumably too prolonged or too
short, it could grasp an unattractive balance condition
that would box movement. The pattern is to optimize all
force conditions to rise a biggest probable off-balance
condition, nonetheless always’ in a same instruction as a armature
magnet moves along a quarrel of stator magnets. However, if the
armature is rotated 180 degrees and started during a opposite
finish of a track, it would act in accurately a same manner
usually that it would, in this example, pierce from left to
right. Also note that once a armature is in motion, it has
transformation that helps lift it into a globe of change of
a subsequent span of magnets where it gets another lift and pull,
and additional momentum.

Complex Forces

Some unequivocally formidable captivating army are apparently during play in
this deceptively facile captivating system, and during this time it
is unfit to rise a mathematical indication of what actually
occurs. However, resource investigate of a system, conducted by
Professor William Harrison and his associates during Virginia
Polytechnic Institute (Blacksburg, VA), yield vicious feedback
information that severely helps in a bid to optimize these
formidable army to grasp a many fit possible
handling design.

As Professor Harrison points out, in offer to a obvious
communication between a dual poles of a armature magnet and
a stator magnets, many other interactions are in play. The
stator magnets impact any other and a support plate. Magnet
distances and their strengths change notwithstanding best efforts of
manufacturers to use peculiarity controls. In a public of
a operative model, there are unavoidable differences between
craft and straight atmosphere spaces. All these interrelated
factors contingency be optimized, that is given resource investigate in
this excellence theatre is vital. It’s a kind of information
feedback system. As changes are finished in a earthy design,
discerning energetic measurements are finished to see presumably a expected
formula have indeed been achieved. The ‘new resource information is
afterwards used to rise new changes in a pattern of the
initial model. And so on, and on.

That unequivocally conflicting captivating conditions exist during a dual ends
of a armature is shown by a tangible initial data
displayed in a list and compared graph. To obtain this
information, a researchers initial upheld a examine of an
instrument used to bulk captivating margin strengths over the
stator magnets and a inserted spaces. We shall call this
a “Zero” spin nonetheless there is a unequivocally tiny opening between the
examine and a tops of a stator magnets. These measurements
in outcome infer what any stick of a armature magnet
“sees” subsequent as it passes over. a stator magnets.

Next a examine is changed to a position usually underneath one of the
armature poles, during a tip of a 3/8-inch armature-to-stator
atmosphere gap. Another set of captivating suit measurements is made.
The procession is steady with a examine positioned just
underneath a other armature pole.

Now “Instinct” competence suggest, and rightly so, that a flux
measurements during a tip and bottom of a atmosphere opening will differ.
But if “instinct” also suggests that these differences are
flattering many a same during a dual armature stick positions, you
would be unequivocally many in error!

First investigate a dual tables that uncover tangible suit density
measurements. Note that in this sole examination the
sum captivating suit amounted to 30,700 Gauss (the territory of
captivating strength) when a examine was reason during a “Zero” level
underneath a north stick of a magnet, and a sum of 28,700
Gauss when a examine was changed to a tip of a 3/8-inch air
gap. The disproportion between these sum ‘measurements is 2,000
Gauss.

Similar readings finished during a atmosphere opening between a south pole
of a armature and a stator magnets indicates a sum flux
during “Zero” spin of 33,725 Gauss, and 24,700 Gauss during a top
of a atmosphere gap. This time a disproportion is a many larger
9,025 Gauss, or 4 and one half times incomparable than for the
north pole! Clearly, a captivating force conditions are far
from matching during a dual ends of a armature magnet.

The core 5 pairs of sum from any list hive been
plotted in striking form to make these differences more
obvious. In a tip “South Pole” graph a dashed line
connects, a “Zero” spin readings finished over a stator
magnets and over a inserted atmosphere spaces. Points along the
plain line infer allied readings finished with a probe
usually underneath a armature south pole. It is easy to see that
there is an normal 43% rebate of a captivate between
a armature and stator magnets total by a atmosphere gap.
Equally true, nonetheless maybe not so obvious, is a fact that
there is an normal 36% boost of abhorrence when a south
stick of a armature passes over a spaces between a stator
magnets. The commission boost usually seems smaller given it
relates to a many smaller “Zero” spin value.

The second graph shows that a changes are many less
thespian during a north stick of a armature. In this case
there’s an normal 11.7% diminution of captivate over the
spaces, and a 2.4% increase, of abhorrence when a armature
north stick passes over a stator magnets.

As we investigate a data, be certain to note that a columns are
labeled differently. In a box of a north stick data, the
stator magnet areas rebuff a armature north stick while the
spaces between a stator magnets attract. The conditions are
accurately a conflicting for a south stick of a armature
magnet. When a south stick passes over a magnet, there is
clever attraction; when it passes over a space, there is
repulsion.

The Ultimate Motor

A engine finished on Johnson’s commentary would be of extremely
facile pattern compared to compulsory motors. As shown in the
diagrams grown from Johnsonrsquo;s apparent literature,
a stator/base territory would enclose a ring of spaced magnets
corroborated by a high captivating permeability sleeve. Three arcuate
armature magnets would be mounted in a armature that has a
belt slit for appetite transmission. The armature is supported
on round march on a missile that presumably screws or slides into
a stator unit. Speed control and start/stop transformation would be
achieved by a facile means of relocating a armature toward and
divided from a stator section.

There is a conspicuous pulsing transformation in a facile prototype
units that competence be unattractive in a unsentimental motor. The
transformation can be smoothed, a contriver believes, by simply
regulating dual or some-more staggered armature magnets as shown in
another drawing.

Whatrsquo;s Ahead?

For contriver Howard Johnson and his permanent magnet power
source there’s organisation to be copiousness of controversy, certainly,
nonetheless also progress. A 5000 watt electric generator powered by a
permanent magnet engine is already on a way, and Johnson has
organisation chartering agreements with during slightest 4 companies during this
writing.

Will we see permanent magnet motors in automobiles in the
nearby future? Johnson wants 0 to do with Detroit during this
time because, as he puts it: “It’;s too romantic – we’d get
crushed into a earth!” The contriver is equally demure to
make predictions about other applications as well, mainly
given he usually wants time to ideal his ideas and,
hopefully, get a systematic investiture to during least
cruise his unusual ideas with a some-more open mind.

For example, Johnson argues that a captivating army in a
permanent magnet paint superconductance that is same to
phenomena routinely compared usually with intensely cold
superconducting systems. He argues that a magnet is a room
heat superconducting complement given a iota flow
does not cease, and given this iota upsurge can be finished to
do work. And for those who pooh- pooh a suspicion that permanent
magnets do work, Johnson has an answer: “You come along with a
magnet and collect adult a block of iron, afterwards some physicist says
we didn’t do any work given we used that magnet. But you
changed a mass by a distance. Right? That’s work that
requires energy. Or we can reason one magnet in a air
indefinitely by positioning it over another magnet with like
poles facing. The physicist will disagree that given it
involves captivating repulsion, no work is done. Yet if you
support a same intent with air, they will settle in a minute
that work is done!”

There’s no doubt in Johnson’s mind that he has succeeded in
extracting serviceable appetite from a atoms of permanent magnets.
But does that indicate that a iota spins and associated
phenomena that he thinks yield this appetite will eventually be
used up? Johnson creates no disguise of meaningful a answer: I
didn’t start a iota spins, and we don’t know any approach to
stop them – do you? They competence eventually stop, nonetheless that is not
my problem.”

Johnson still has many unsentimental problems to solve to perfect
his invention. But his incomparable plea competence be to win general
acceptance of his ideas by an apparently shaken scientific
village in that many physicists sojourn compulsive about
fortifying a law of Conservation of Energy nonetheless ever
wondering presumably that “law” unequivocally needs defending.

The quandary opposed Johnson is not unequivocally his quandary but
rather that of other scientists who have celebrated his
prototypes. The inclination apparently do work. But a textbooks
contend it shouldn’t work. And all that Johnson is unequivocally saying
to a systematic village is this: here is a phenomenon
that seems to protest some of a normal beliefs. For
all a sakes let’s not boot it undisguised nonetheless take a time
to know a formidable army during work here.


The Permanent Magnet Motor

by
Howard R. Johnson

William P. Harrison, Jr.

( Engineering Fundamentals Division, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA )

Presented during a UNITAR ( UN Institute for Training
Research ) Conference on Long-Term Energy Resource, Montreal,
Canada, Nov 26-December 7, 1979.
 

I. Introductory remarks (by Mr. Johnson)

Today when appetite is so expensive, it is not tough to drum up
interst for many any entrance that offers a exhale of wish or a
approach of escape, nonetheless this was not indispensably so in 1942. 
We were rather confident and assured that we had a main
sources of appetite in view. So it took a pristine act of faith to
try to rise a new un-named source.

It took faith to spend time on it. It took faith to spend
income on it. And it took faith to cruise opposed the
antithesis after when we finished my work famous and faced all a status

quo people.

So, in 1942 regulating a Bohr indication of a atom, and knowing
that unpaired iota spins total a permanent magnet
dipole, we kept wondering given we couldn’t use these fields to
expostulate something. we was certain that a captivating outcome of the
spins was matching adequate to a margin of a stream in a wire
to do a same thing. we had no trust of iota spins
interlude and knew no routine that we could strive to stop them,
so we motionless to try to work out a routine to use them.

At a same time there were no good tough captivating materials
that we knew of, materials that could be conflicting with strong
captivating fields and not be demagnetized adequate to repairs them.
Not usually that, they would not give a bearing that we desired.

Having a chemical background, we suspicion it would be good to
use a best captivating materials we could find in combination
with an interstitial member that was rarely diamagnetic to
force a iota spin to stay in place.

The U.S. Navy after finished such a devalue regulating bismuth and
good captivating materials, nonetheless a center coercive army were
so good that this clever magnet would tumble detached if not
encased in glass. It was also expensive.

So we kept checking captivating materials while we worked on
designs that we suspicion should be implemented. It was a quiet,
infrequently waste pursuit over a years, for we didn’t share my
skeleton with my associates. My self-imposed confidence would not
assent it, and we knew of few people who would be interested
anyway.

In a fifties, as ceramic magnets became softened and harder,
and long-field steel magnets seemed on a scene, we began to
solidify some designs and to have magnets tradition finished to fit
them.

It was about this time that we mentioned a fact that usually as
we believed iota spins finished permanent magnets, we also
believed that they were obliged for a 60° angles in the
structure of snowflakes giving a six-spoked wheel, the
six-sided spokes, etc. The vanguard of a propagandize where we was
training said, “Maybe so” and ask me if we knew that snowflakes
were mentioned in a Bible as being important. we told him,
“No, we didn’t know that,” nonetheless we looked it up. It said: “Hast
thou entered into a treasures of a snow? Or hast thou seen
a treasures of a hail? Which we have indifferent conflicting the
time of trouble, conflicting a day of conflict and war.”

My criticism was, “Well, maybe this is some-more vicious than I
thought.” So we went forward and worked on it another 10 years.

I went to a Library of Congress and looked adult snowflakes. I
found a smashing book there by Dr. Bentley of New Hampshire.
He has spend many years origination these studies, and he had
schooled a lot, as good as branch out one of a world’s most
pleasing books. He had found that snowflakes have gas pockets
oriented on 60° angles and that a gas has a higher
commission of oxygen than air. That’s one reason given snow
H2O rusts so well. This aloft thoroughness of oxygen also
meddlesome me given oxygen is some-more captivated to a magnetic
margin than other gases.

Finally, regulating a best ceramic magnets we could find and the
best steel magnets, we worked out a intrigue for a linear motor.
The stator would be laid out as if it were unwound from around
a motor. The tools of a armature would float usually above the
stator and have a same beveled bony orientations we have
usually mentioned.

Dies were finished for a winding armature magnets, and an order
was placed for these shapes, notwithstanding a objections of magnet
manufacturers who pronounced it was a bad design. They didn’t know
what it was for, nonetheless they were certain it was a bad design. They
wanted to make horseshoe magnets. They even begged me to
calm myself with half an order. we did not settle — and
once again we have that tiny matter of faith; faith to try
to exercise a new theory; faith to spend your possess limited
supports when we have a a family and other financial
responsibilities staring we in a face; faith to sire the
famous authorities and manufacturers in a field; faith
to trust that your work is good and that some day, despite
all a hazards, we will request for and accept apparent rights
in your possess nation and maybe via a rest of the
world; and finally, faith that we can conflict being smashed
into dirt by industrial giants and/or being attacked by others
who know usually how to steal.

Believe it or not, my initial engine public showed about two
pounds of thrust. The tiny fondle automobile on that we bound the
armature magnets for support ran in both directions over the
stator, display that a focusing and timing of the
interactions was not too bad.

This was a initial light during a finish of a rather dim hovel I
had been roving for many years. we breathed a genuine pointer of
service as my immature son played with this “new toy,” and was
means to work it as simply as we could.

After many contrast of linear and round designs, and
looking for an profession for years matched to securing a patent
on a new fanciful work, we was led to Dunkan Beaman of
Beaman Beamon in Jackson, Michigan. It took some time to
ready a patent.  The profession built some models
himself to check certain parameters. Finally, we entered the
box in a apparent bureau awaiting a lot of opposition. We
were correct. We got it. But again, faith saved a day as we
battled for many years to benefit a rather finish victory.

Now a work requires conflicting kinds of faith: faith in
those who have taken cut licenses and who will license; faith
to continue a investigate to reinstate wanting materials in the
magnets; and faith that this work will continue to progress
and that it will eventually perform a goal.

For a array of reasons, a permanent magnet engine has not
perceived many consideration. In fact, 0 too radical has
been finished given Faraday took some unequivocally wanton materials and
showed a universe that it was probable to make a motor. 
This work of his mostly shabby a meditative of Clerk
Maxwell and others who followed.

Today, a dual biggest obstacles to regulating a permanent magnet
engine are, first, a faith that it violates a conservation
of appetite law; and, secondly, that a captivating fields of
captivate and abhorrence diminution according to a inverse
block law afterwards a atmosphere opening is increased.

In fact, both contentions are utterly wrong given they are
finished on wrong considerations.

The permanent magnet is a prolonged time appetite source.  This
has been shown for many years in a rating of magnets as high
or low appetite sources for many applications over long
usage.

A loudspeaker stoical wholly of electromagnets would be
imaginary in stretch and appetite consumption.  Yet, despite
examples of this type, many demur to request a same
beliefs to motors and extend them even offer by using
permanent magnets for both a stator and armature.

The elements of all electric and permanent magnet motors are
similar. A margin imbalance contingency be created, a fields
contingency be focused and timed, and magnetic
leakage
contingency be controlled.

In a wound motor, brushes and hit rings give the
timing, a stretch and figure of a wound fields and poles gives
a focusing, and a engine box and kind of iron used assistance to
border a leakage.

In a permanent magnet motors a timing is built into the
motors by a size, shape, and spacing
of a magnets in a stator and armature. The focusing
is tranquil by a shape of a magnets, pole

length, and a width of a atmosphere gap. This air
gap, by that magnets conflict and attract any other, is a
singular phenomenon.  Usually when a captivating atmosphere opening is
increased, a margin decreases inversely as a square.

When a atmosphere opening of a permanent magnet engine is increased,
a extraordinary nonetheless transparent change takes place.  There is a
vast diminution in a reading during south pole of the
armature and an boost in a reading during a north pole.
Thus, a Hall-effect intuiting examine will give a aloft gauss
reading during a north stick and a dwindling count during a south
pole. This helps explain given a bearing is softened with a
incomparable atmosphere opening than a smaller one. The attracting margin is
minimized and will not furnish a locking force, while the
abhorrence of a crescent magnet is good adequate to beget a
bearing matrix member that will expostulate a armature.

As we attempted to explain in a patent, we trust that the
permanent magnet is a initial room heat super
conductor. In fact, we trust that super conductors are simply
vast wound magnets. The stream in a super conductor is not
instituted by a clever emf, such as a battery, nonetheless is instead
indeed prompted into existence by a captivating field. Then, in
sequence to settle how many stream competence be issuing in the
super conductor coil, we bulk a captivating field. This
appears to be something like going out a doorway and coming
behind in a window.

Another rather singular underline of super conductors is a fact
that their captivating lines of force trust a change in
direction. No longer do these lines upsurge during right angles to
a conductor, nonetheless they now exist together to a conductor.
Theoretically, a complicated conductor currents exist in a fine
filaments of niobium within any tiny handle of niobium tin
from that such super conductors are made. Isn’t it
enchanting that a finer a handle a reduction a resistance
until eventually there is no insurgency during all?

II.  Theoretical Analysis (presented by William P.
Harrison, Jr.)

1. Introduction

Despite a fact that a linear chronicle of a permanent
magnet engine (Johnson, 1979) competence seem conceptually simple
(see Fig. 1), a formidable interactions of a fields alone
place it in a category with other utterly worldly motive
systems.

Figure 1: Partial Front and Plan Views of a Linear Model
of a Howard Johnson Permanent Magnet Motor

Many parameters play an vicious prejudiced in origination probable the
successful pattern of a permanent magnet motor. A array of
these variables describe directly to a geometry of a system
and a components.  Mathematical models for both the
linear and round versions of Mr. Johnson’s motors are
currently underneath development, and embody such controllable
parameters as stator-to-armature atmosphere gap, stator member air
opening spacing, armature stick length, stator magnet dimensions,
magnet member variations, captivating permeability and geometry
of subsidy metals, and mixed armature couplings, to mention
usually a few. However, many of a early work concerned quit
facile mathematical investigations, and even during this level
some conspicuous revelations resulted. Also, as mostly is true
with facile models, estimable discernment into a mechanisms
that competence infer accepted was gained.  Therefore, it
is a idea to share with we some of those early
methodical investigations and findings.

Even nonetheless Coulomb’s Law, embodying a conflicting square
attribute as it does, competence nonetheless infer suspect, it
nonetheless provides an awfully facile nonetheless viable form
on that to bottom an facile indication of a linear version
of a permanent magnet motor. Describing a interaction
between dual captivating monopoles, Coulomb’s Law in matrix form
is removed as

(1) 

where M and M’ are a stick strengths (positive if north,
disastrous if south), u [mu] is a permeability of the
center in that a poles are located, r is the
straight-line subdivision stretch between a dual poles, and
f
[ f with line over top] is a vector
of force (see Fig. 2) behaving during any stick (positive in
bulk for abhorrence and disastrous for attraction).

Figure 2: Coulomb’s Law

The matrix inlet of Eq. (1), a fact that f’s line of
transformation is colinear with a straight-line stretch r
between poles, a superposition properties when practical to
mixed poles, and a limitation to immobile systems fixes in
space are all good famous conditions on Eq. (1).  We will
use a superposition ability of Eq. (1) to extend its
thoroughness to a spatial domain containing many some-more poles
than a dual shown in Fig. 2.  However, Eq. (1) will
initial be resolved into scalar components so that analytical
expressions can be some-more simply developed.

Our investigate will be two-dimensional and coplanar, restricted
to a straight x-y plane.  It should be remarkable that the
craft stator “track” of H.R. Johnson’s linear model
comprises a comparison of prosaic magnets, rectilinear in cross
section, any carrying an aspect ratio (length-to-thickness
ratio) of 16.  This high value contributes to the
two-dimensional inlet of a indication and helps to minimize and
effects in a z direction.  Thus there is some
justification for a two-dimensional analysis, during slightest in the
box of a linear indication we are deliberation here.

Figure 3: Positional Locations of Two Opposing North
monopoles in X-Y Space ~

As shown in Fig. 3, we cruise initial a north stick of
strength M located during coordinates (E [epsilon], n
[nu]) with a second north stick of strength M’, located on the
x-axis during (x,0).  Force f, behaving on the
monopole during (E,n), when resolved into a horizontal
and straight components yields, respectively,

(2) 

and

(3) 

2. The Attractive Sheet

Figure 4: Spatial Orientation of Thin, Magnetized Sheet
carrying high aspect ratio and with S side face up

To illustrate some of a assumptions and extensions of
Coulombrsquo;s Law that will be made, a facile example
of a captivating block fibbing along a x-axis will be considered
initial (see Fig. 4). The sheet, of calculable length L, is a
permanent magnet magnetized conflicting a y-direction thickness
and carrying a high aspect ratio (to discharge z-direction edge
effects). The south-pole face will be oriented up, with north
opposed downward on a underside of a sheet. Underside
effects will be abandoned as nonetheless a block represented a
continual placement of usually south monopoles along the
x-axis. To incorporate such distributions into Eq. (1) we
reinstate Mrsquo; with a differential dMrsquo; and
deliver a duty B(x) so that

(4)     dMrsquo; = B(x) dx

Then a bulk of a sum force vector, F, behaving on an
removed north monopole of strength M situated somewhere
within a tip half of a x-y plane, becomes

(5) 

where x is a ratio x/L. Assuming that a captivating density
along a block can be represented by a southern consistent -B,
and neglecting finish effects during x = 0 and x = L, Eq (5) reduces
to

(6) 

where

(7) 

the strength parameter Mrsquo; carrying been energetic by
integrating Eq (4) over a block length L, and p
is a ratio r/L.

Figure 5: North Monopole Positioned Symmetrically above
a core of a magnetized, attracting sheet

Figure 6: Force Imbalance Acting on a North Monopole
above a mangetized block given to revive a stick to
block center

If a north monopole is placed directly above a core of
a sheet, during coordinates (E, n), with E = L/2
and a straight air-gap subdivision stretch n taken as
arbitrary, a exquisite placement of incremental force
vectors behaving during (E,n) will seem as shown in Fig. 5.
Note that a change of a north monopole to a left formula in
a force imbalance that tends to lift a stick behind to the
right, as shown in Fig. 6. So deliberation now usually the
x-component of F, matching to Eq (2) we write

(8) 

where X and Y are a dimensionless ratios

(9) 

and

(10) 

For any organisation position (X,Y) of a north monopole in the
tip half plane, Eq (8) can be integrated to give

(11) 

Figure 7: X-Direction Distribution of a X-Component of
appealing force exerted on a north monopole by a thin,
magnetized sheet

This ratio is shown in Fig (7) as a continual duty of X
locations with Y treated parametrically. The Y = 1 curve
represents a margin change on a north monopole situated
during a consistent air-gap subdivision (n = L) utterly some
straight stretch above a sheet; given during Y = 0.1 the
monopole is located many closer to a x axis. Reversal of the
force member by a 0 value during mid-sheet (X = ½) is
clearly shown.

In sequence to snippet some trajectories by this field, we
now observe that a y-component of force F
will be

(12) 

This duty is shown in Fig (8) with a Y value of 0.20

Figure 8: [Missing]

In dimensionless form a equations of suit for trajectory
paths of a monopole above a block in planar X-Y space
spin

(13) 

and

(14) 

where

(15) 

(16) 

and

(17) 

In these countenance t is genuine time and T is
simply a time consistent selected arbitrarily. As previously
noted, L is a length of a sheet; whereas, g
is a gravitational acceleration consistent and W is
a downward weight force of a relocating monopole above the
sheet. For captivating force terms (rx)mag
and (ry)mag we surrogate directly Eq
(11) and Eq (12), respectively.

Several of a trajectories ensuing from a formation of
Eq (13) and Eq (14) are shown in Fig.9. They all vaunt the
entrance behavior. As already pragmatic in a contention of
Fig. 7, a duty (rx)mag given by Eq
(11) has a fast infer of balance during X = ½ and therefore
drives a free-falling monopole towards a block center,
regardless of a initial drop-point location. The duty (ry)mag
from Eq (12) is equally estimable in pulling a monopole
down towards a block itself, and manifests that attraction
utterly pervasively via a formation of Eq (14), even
when a G tenure competence be wanting (as it was in the
trajectories of Fig. 9). Actually, a resource integration
procession will not lift a monopole all a approach to surface
hit with a block during Y = 0 given of a infinite
condition that exists there as reflected by Eq (12). Thus,
tailings of these trajectories (Fig 9) have been finished by
manually major a plotter.

Figure 9: Trajectories of a North Monopole in an
appealing margin generated by a thin, magnetized sheet
fibbing in a X-interval 0-1

As we would expect in operative with this form of central
field, where B in Eq (4) is a facile constant, the
margin is regressive with twist of F vanishing. Also, the
retreat balance of (rx)mag about X = ½,
as seen in Fig. 7, confirms that a appetite constituent for this
duty will disappear nonetheless any suitable border pairs of X.

3. The Repulsive Sheet

By substituting +B instead of -B for B
in Eq (4), a block of length L fibbing along a x-axis
becomes repulsive, with a northern face destined upward,
hostile a north monopole above it during plcae (E,n).
Of march a pointer in Eq (6) becomes certain and the
functions (rx)mag and (ry)mag
retreat their duty accordingly, as illustrated in Fig. 10.
Again (rx)mag will have an equilibrium
infer during X = ½, nonetheless now it is destabilizing. As a consequence,
ensuing trajectories for a north monopole are many more
enchanting in this box than they were with a attractive
sheet. Several paths are shown in Fig 11 with conflicting values
used for a W/J arena in Eq
(17). Parameter G was included, and in any instance the
trajectories commenced during (0.9, 0.2) with 0 initial
velocity.

Figure 10: X-Direction Distributions of (rx)mag
and (ry)mag for a nauseating field
of a thin, magnetized block behaving on a relocating north
monopole

Figure 11: Trajectories of a North Monopole in a
nauseating margin generated by a thin, magnetized sheet
fibbing in a X-interval 0-1

The appealing and nauseating block formula are easily
demonstrated given rubberized stretchable block magnets are
commercially available, such as those sole by a Permag Corp.
of Jamaica, NY. It competence also be enchanting to note that with
slight modifications this initial facile methodical block model
can be used to benefit some discernment into operation of a so-called
“magnetic Wankel” reported on by Scott (1979).

Figure 12: Pole Strength Influence Factor, M’, as a
cosine duty of linear banishment distance, x

Figure 13: Experimentally Detemined Magnetic Flux
Density, B, along a linear indication of a Johnson permanent
magnet motor

4. The Sinusoidal Model

The initial paper (Harrison, 1979) relating, indirectly, to any
mathematical investigate of a permanent magnet engine adopted a
cosine duty (Fig 12) to copy a placement of
change parameter Mrsquo; generated by a prosaic stator
lane of Mr Johnsonrsquo;s linear model. An
experimentally energetic distribution, shown in Fig 13, was
performed by relocating a Hall-effect examine over a stator track
of one of Mr Johnsonrsquo;s early linear models having
7 prosaic ceramic magnet elements. The figure shown was
assembled by a plotter connected directly to a monitor
resource determining positioning of a Hall examine and
estimate a outlay signal. Ordinate values on a graph are
captivating suit firmness in gauss totalled relations to a
bound credentials value. These direct-reading
initial formula advise that a duty

(18) 

substituted into Eq (4) should infer enchanting to pursue as
a some-more severe exam of what competence be gleaned from this
facile Coulomb indication we have been discussing. It should be
remarkable that one of a vicious differences between the
duty (18) and that shown in Fig 12 is that in Eq (18) the
duration length parameter xp is double that shown in Figure 12.

Using Eq (18), a sum force bulk countenance Eq (5)
becomes

(19) 

where a sum lane length stretch of L has been used to
form a dimensionless ratios
p = r/L,  x = x/L,  and  xp = xp/L. Also, if Eq
(7) is used for J in Eq (19), afterwards in
that countenance one contingency surrogate a product BL for
Mrsquo;.

Now we devise to reason Y consistent while questioning linear
suit of a monopole along this lane in a X-direction
only. So we need cruise usually a X-component of F
from Eq (19) that yields

(20) 

Figure 14: Oscillatory Path of a North Monopole
calm to x-direction suit over a three-element
linear stator assembly

With this countenance replaced into Eq (13), integration
becomes candid and yields a standard oscillatory
form of arena trail shown in Fig 14. As Mr Johnson has
brought out, a focusing armature magnet of his linear model
will start during presumably finish of a stator lane simply by
insuring that a north finish of this bipoled crescent is
heading a south (see Fig. 1). So, in Fig. 14, we are showing
a X-direction suit from right to left instead of from left
to right as in a before examples. Also, by simply rotating
a figure clockwise by 90 degrees, it becomes easy to
follow a duty of dimensionless velocity, Vx,
in Fig 11, given Vx is tangible as

(21) 

It will be remarkable in Fig 14 that a north monopole has been
authorised to self-start a suit during a start with Vx
primarily zero.

We now plead out final composition that valid to be an
sparkling explanation during a time it was initial investigated
several months ago. Johnson (1979, col. 5, line 39) states
that a craft air-gap spacing between a magnet
elements that a stator lane comprises should change slightly
from normal in sequence to well-spoken out transformation of a armature.
Introducing this form of transformation into a two-dimensional
model, supposing a assign is nonuniform, would certainly
renovate a margin from regressive to nonconservative. It
should by now be apparent that usually a nonconservative model
has any possibility during all of even partially explaining the
phenomena of a permanent magnet motor.

With these thoughts in mind, an try was finished to expostulate the
armature monopole of Fig 14 on to a second stator magnet and
over by varying a craft opening parameter xp during the
formation routine (i.e., during a motion). The formula are
shown in Fig 15. It was found that by tiny variations in
xp in Eq (20), as a monopole modernized along its
arena trail from one X position to another, sufficient
control over a relocating stick could be exercised to lift it
over a full length of a stator and beyond.

Figure 15: Continuus Path of a North Monopole restrained
to x-direction suit shown traversing a linear stator
public comprised of 7 permanent magnet elements

III. References

Harrison, William P., Jr.: “A Solution for a Optimal Gap of
a Monopole Element Moving in a Sinusoidally Distributed
Magnetic Field”, paper presented to a Engineering Section,
Virginia Academy of Science, 57th Annual Meeting, Richmond VA,
May 8-11, 1979.

Johnson, Howard R: US Patent # 4,151,431 (April 24, 1979),
“Permanent Magnet Motor”.

Scott, David, “Magnetic Wankel for Electric Cars”, Popular

Science, p. 80, Jun 1979.


US Patent #  4,151,431

Permanent Magnet Motor
( Apr 24, 1979 )

Howard R. Johnson

Abstract — The invention is destined to a method
of utilizing a unpaired iota spins in ferro captivating and
other materials as a source of captivating fields for producing
appetite nonetheless any iota upsurge as occurs in normal
conductors, and to permanent magnet motors for utilizing this
routine to furnish a appetite source. In a use of the
invention a unpaired iota spins occurring within
permanent magnets are employed to furnish a ground power
source usually by a superconducting characteristics of a
permanent magnet and a captivating suit total by a magnets
are tranquil and strong to asian a captivating forces
generated in such a demeanour to do useful continual work, such
as a banishment of a rotor with honour to a stator. The
timing and march of captivating army during a rotor and
stator components assembled by permanent magnets to furnish a
engine is achieved with a correct geometrical relationship
of these components.

Inventors:  Johnson; Howard R. (3300 Mt. Hope Rd., Grass
Lake, MI 49240)
Appl. No.:  422306    ~  Filed: 
Dec 6, 1973

Current U.S. Class: 310/12; 310/152; 415/10; 415/916; 416/3;
505/877
Intern’l Class:  H02K 041/00; H02N 011/00
Field of Search:  24/DIG. 9 415/DIG. 2 46/236 ;134 A;135
A;136 B;137 AE;138 A 273/118 A,119 A,120 A,121 A,122 A,123
A,124,125 A, 126 A,130 A,131 A,131 AD

References Cited:

U.S. Patent Documents
4,074,153 (Feb., 1978) Baker, et al. 310/12.

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention pertains to a margin of permanent magnet motor
inclination usually regulating a captivating fields total thereby to
product ground power.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Conventional electric motors occupy captivating army to
furnish presumably rotative or linear motion. Electric motors
work on a member that when a conductor is located in a
captivating margin that carries stream a captivating force is
exerted on it.

Normally, in a compulsory electric motor, a rotor, or
stator, or both, are so connected that captivating fields total by
electromagnetics competence occupy attraction, repulsion, or both
forms of captivating forces, to levy a force on a armature
to means rotation, or to means a armature to be replaced in
a linear path. Conventional electric motors competence employ
permanent magnets presumably in a armature or stator components,
nonetheless in a art once famous a use of permanent magnets
in presumably a stator or armature need a origination of an
electromagnetic margin to act on a margin assembled by the
permanent magnets, and switching means are employed to control
a energization of a electromagnets and a march of
a captivating fields, to furnish a ground power.

It is my faith that a full appetite of captivating forces
existent in permanent magnets has not been famous or
employed given of deficient information and speculation with
honour to a atomic suit occurring within a permanent
magnet. It is my faith that a currently unnamed atomic
molecule is compared with a iota transformation of a
superconducting electromagnet and a lossless stream upsurge of
Amperian currents in permanent magnets. The unpaired electron
upsurge is matching in both situations. This tiny molecule is
believed to be conflicting in assign and to be located during right
angles to a relocating electron, and a molecule would be very
tiny as to dig all famous elements, in their various
states as good as their famous compounds, unless they have
unpaired electrons that constraint these particles as they
try to pass therethrough.

Ferro electrons differ from those of many elements in that
they are unpaired, and being unpaired they spin around the
iota in such a approach that they respond to captivating fields as
good as formulating one themselves. If they were paired, their
captivating fields would cancel out. However, being unpaired they
emanate a quantifiable captivating margin if their spins have been
oriented in one direction. The spins are during right angles to
their captivating fields.

In niobium superconductors during a vicious state, a magnetic
lines of force stop to be during right angles. This change must
be due to substantiating a compulsory conditions for unpaired
electronic spins instead of iota upsurge in a conductor,
and a fact that unequivocally absolute electromagnets that can be
finished with superconductors illustrates a tremendous
advantage of producing a captivating margin by unpaired electron
spins rather than compulsory iota flow.

In a superconducting metal, wherein a electrical resistance
becomes incomparable in a steel than a nucleus resistance, the
upsurge turns to iota spins and a certain particles flow
together in a steel in a demeanour occurring in a permanent
magnet where a absolute upsurge of captivating certain particles or
captivating suit causes a unpaired electrons to spin during right
angles. Under cryogenic superconduction conditions the
frozen of a crystals in place creates it probable for the
spins to continue, and in a permanent magnet a grain
march of a magnetized member formula in a spins
needing them to continue and for a suit to upsurge parallel
to a metal.

In a superconductor, during initial a iota is issuing and the
certain molecule is spinning; later, when critical, the
retreat occurs, i.e., a iota is spinning and the
certain molecule is issuing during right angles. These positive
particles will thread or work their approach by a electron
spins benefaction in a metal.

In a sense, a permanent magnet competence be deliberate a only
room heat superconductor. It is a superconductor
given a iota upsurge does not cease, and this electron
upsurge can be finished to do work given of a captivating margin it
supplies. Previously, this source of appetite has not been used
given it was not probable to cgange a iota upsurge to
accomplish a switching functions of a captivating field. Such
switching functions are common in a compulsory electric
engine where electrical stream is employed to align a much
incomparable iota stream in a iron stick pieces and
combine a captivating margin during a correct places to give
a bearing compulsory to pierce a engine armature. In a
compulsory electric motor, switching is achieved by the
use of brushes, commutators, swapping current, or other
famous means.

In sequence to accomplish a switching duty in a permanent
magnet motor, it is compulsory to defense a captivating leakage
so that it will not seem as too good a detriment cause during the
wrong places. The best routine to accomplish this is to use the
superconductor of captivating suit and combine it to the
place where it will be a many effective. Timing and
switching can be achieved in a permanent magnet engine by
concentrating a suit and regulating a correct geometry of the
engine rotor and stator to make many effective use of the
captivating fields generated by a iota spins. By a proper
multiple of materials, geometry and captivating concentration,
it is probable to grasp a automatic advantage of high
ratio, incomparable than 100 to 1, means of producing a
continual ground force.

To my knowledge, before work finished with permanent magnets,
and ground inclination utilizing permanent magnets, have not
achieved a outcome elite in a use of a inventive
concept, and it is with a correct multiple of materials,
geometry and captivating thoroughness that a participation of the
captivating spins within a permanent magnet competence be employed as a
ground force.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an intent of a invention to implement a magnetic
spinning materialisation of unpaired electrons occurring in ferro
captivating member to furnish a transformation of a mass in a
unidirectional demeanour as to assent a engine to be driven solely
by captivating army as occurring within permanent magnets. In
a use of a resourceful concepts, motors of either
linear or rotative forms competence be produced.

It is an intent of a invention to yield a proper
multiple of materials, geometry and captivating concentration
to implement a force generated by unpaired iota spins
existent in permanent magnets to appetite a motor. Whether the
engine constitutes a linear embodiment, or a rotary embodiment,
in any instance a “stator” competence embody of a comparison of
permanent magnets organisation relations to any other in space
attribute to conclude a track, linear in form in a linear
embodiment, and round in form in a rotary embodiment. An
armature magnet is located in spaced attribute to such
lane tangible by a stator magnets wherein an atmosphere opening exists
therebetween. The length of a armature magnet is tangible by
poles of conflicting polarity, and a length of a armature
magnet is likely relations to a lane tangible by a stator
magnets in a instruction of a trail of transformation of the
armature magnet as replaced by a captivating forces.

The stator magnets are so mounted that poles of like polarity
are likely toward a armature magnet and as a armature
magnet has poles that are both captivated to and detered by
a adjacent stick of a stator magnets, both captivate and
abhorrence army act on a armature magnet to furnish the
relations banishment between a armature and stator magnets.

The stability ground force producing banishment between
a armature and stator magnets formula from a relationship
of a length of a armature magnet in a instruction of its
trail of transformation as compared to a dimension of a stator
magnets, and a spacing therebetween, in a instruction of the
trail of armature magnet movement. This ratio of magnet and
magnet spacings, and with an excusable atmosphere opening spacing
between a stator and armature magnets, will furnish a
following force on a armature magnet that displaces the
armature magnet conflicting a stator magnet along a trail of
movement.

In a use of a invention transformation of a armature
magnet relations to a stator magnets formula from a
multiple of captivate and abhorrence army existing
between a stator and armature magnets. By concentrating the
captivating fields of a stator and armature magnets a motive
force imposed on a armature magnet is intensified, and in
a disclosed embodiments such captivating margin concentration
means are disclosed.

The disclosed captivating margin concentrating means enclose a
picture of high captivating margin permeability likely adjacent
one side of a stator magnets in estimable engagement
therewith. This high permeability member is so disposed
adjacent poles of like polarity of a stator magnets. The
captivating margin of a armature magnet competence be strong and
directionally oriented by bowing a armature magnet, and the
captivating margin competence offer be strong by moulding a pole
ends of a armature magnet to combine a magnet margin at
a comparatively singular aspect during a armature magnet stick ends.

Preferably, a comparison of armature magnets are used which
are staggered with honour to any other in a instruction of
armature magnet movement. Such an offsetting or towering of
a armature magnets distributes a impulses of force imposed
on a armature magnets and formula in a smoother
thoroughness of army to a armature magnet producing a
smoother and some-more uniform transformation of a armature component.

In a rotary essence of a permanent magnet engine of the
invention a stator magnets are organised in a circle, and the
armature magnets stagger about a stator magnets. Means are
disclosed for producing relations axial banishment between
a stator and armature magnets to adjust a axial alignment
thereof, and thereby umpire a bulk of a magnetic
army being imposed on a armature magnets. In this manner
a speed of revolution of a rotary essence competence be
regulated.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE
DRAWINGS

The aforementioned objects and advantages of a invention
will be appreciated from a following outline and
concomitant drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective of iota upsurge in a
superconductor indicating a unpaired iota spins,

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional perspective of a superconductor underneath a
vicious state illustrating a iota spins,

FIG. 3 is a perspective of a permanent magnet illustrating a flux
transformation therethrough,

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional perspective illustrating a hole of
a magnet of FIG. 3,

FIG. 5 is an elevational painting of a linear motor
essence of a permanent magnet engine of a invention
illustrating one position of a armature magnet relations to
a stator magnets, and indicating a captivating army imposed
on a armature magnet,

FIG. 6 is a perspective matching to FIG. 5 illustrating displacement
of a armature magnet relations to a stator magnets, and the
change of captivating army thereon during this location,

FIG. 7 is a offer elevational perspective matching to FIGS. 5 and 6
illustrating offer banishment of a armature magnet to
a left, and a change of a captivating army thereon,

FIG. 8 is a tip devise perspective of a linear essence of the
resourceful judgment illustrating a span of armature magnets in
compared attribute likely above a stator magnets,

FIG. 9 is a diametrical, elevational, sectional perspective of a
rotary engine essence in settle with a invention as taken
along territory IX–IX of FIG. 10, and

FIG. 10 is an elevational perspective of a rotary engine embodiment
as taken along territory X–X of FIG. 9.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
EMBODIMENTS

In sequence to softened know a speculation of a inventive
concept, anxiety is finished to FIGS. 1 by 4. In FIG. 1 a
superconductor 1 is illustrated carrying a certain particle
upsurge as represented by arrow 2, a unpaired electrons of the
ferrous conducting member 1 spin during right angles to the
nucleus upsurge in a conductor as represented by a spin line
and arrow 3. In settle with a speculation of a invention the
spinning of a ferrous unpaired electrons formula from the
atomic structure of ferrous materials and this spinning atomic
molecule is believed to be conflicting in assign and located at
right angles to a relocating electrons. It is insincere to be very
tiny in stretch means of perspicacious other elements and their
compounds unless they have unpaired electrons that capture
these particles as they try to pass therethrough.

The miss of electrical insurgency of conductors during a critical
superconductor state has prolonged been recognized, and
superconductors have been employed to furnish unequivocally high
captivating suit firmness electromagnets. FIG. 2 represents a
cranky territory of a vicious superconductor and a electron
spins are indicated by a arrows 3.

A permanent magnet competence be deliberate a superconductor as the
iota upsurge therein does not cease, and is without
resistance, and unpaired electric spinning particles exist
which, in a use of a invention, are employed to
furnish engine force. FIG. 3 illustrates a horseshoe shaped
permanent magnet during 4 and a captivating suit therethrough is
indicated by arrows 5, a captivating upsurge being from a south
stick to a north stick and by a captivating material. The
amassed iota spins occurring about a hole of the
magnet 5 are represented during 6 in FIG. 4, and a spinning
iota particles spin during right angles in a iron as the
suit travels by a magnet material.

By utilizing a iota spinning speculation of ferrous material
electrons, it is probable with a correct ferromagnetic
materials, geometry and captivating thoroughness to implement the
spinning electrons to furnish a ground force in a continuous
direction, thereby ensuing in a engine means of doing work.

It is appreciated that a embodiments of motors utilizing
a concepts of a invention competence take many forms, and in the
illustrated forms a simple relations of components are
illustrated in sequence to divulge a resourceful concepts and
principles.

The relations of a comparison of magnets defining the
stator 10 are best appreciated from FIGS. 5 by 8. The
stator magnets 12 are preferably of a rectangular
configuration, FIG. 8, and so magnetized that a poles exist
during a vast surfaces of a magnets, as will be appreciated
from a N (North) and S (South) designations. The stator
magnets embody side edges 14 and 16 and finish edges 18. The
stator magnets are mounted on a ancillary picture 20, which
is preferably of a steel member carrying a high permeability
to captivating fields and captivating suit such as that available
underneath a heading Netic CoNetic sole by a Perfection Mica
Company of Chicago, Illinois. Thus, a picture 20 will be
likely toward a south stick of a stator magnets 12, and
preferably in approach rendezvous therewith, nonetheless a bonding
member competence be interposed between a magnets and a plate
in sequence to accurately locate and repair a magnets on the
plate, and position a stator magnets with honour to each
other.

Preferably, a spacing between a stator magnets 12
rather differs between adjacent stator magnets as such a
transformation in spacing varies a army being imposed on the
armature magnet during a ends, during any given time, and thus
formula in a smoother transformation of a armature magnet relative
to a stator magnets. Thus, a stator magnets so positioned
relations to any other conclude a lane 22 carrying a longitudinal
instruction left to right as noticed in FIGS. 5 by 8.

In FIGS. 5 by 7 usually a singular armature magnet 24 is
disclosed, while in FIG. 8 a span of armature magnets are
shown. For functions of bargain a concepts of the
invention a outline herein will be singular to a use of
singular armature magnet as shown in FIGS. 5 by 7.

The armature magnet is of an elongated pattern wherein
a length extends from left to right, FIG. 5, and competence be of a
rectilinear cross cross-sectional shape. For magnetic
margin concentrating and march functions a magnet 24 is
finished in an arcuate bent pattern as tangible by concave
surfaces 26 and convex surfaces 28, and a poles are defined
during a ends of a magnet as will be appreciated from FIG. 5.
For offer captivating margin concentrating functions a ends of
a armature magnet are finished by beveled surfaces 30 to
minimize a cross-sectional area during a magnet ends during 32,
and a captivating suit existent between a poles of the
armature magnet are as indicated by a light dotted lines. In
like demeanour a captivating fields of a stator magnets 12 are
indicated by a light dotted lines.

The armature magnet 24 is confirmed in a spaced relationship
above a stator lane 22. This spacing competence be achieved by
ascent a armature magnet on a slide, beam or track
located above a stator magnets, or a armature magnet could
be mounted on a wheeled automobile carriage or slip supported
on a nonmagnetic aspect or guideway likely between the
stator magnets and a armature magnet. To explain the
illustration, a means for ancillary a armature magnet 24
is not illustrated and such means form no prejudiced of invention,
and it is to be accepted that a means ancillary the
armature magnet prevents a armature magnet from relocating away
from a stator magnets, or relocating closer thereto, nonetheless permits
giveaway transformation of a armature magnet to a left or right in a
instruction together to a lane 22 tangible by a stator
magnets.

It will be remarkable that a length of a armature magnet 24 is
rather incomparable than a breadth of dual of a stator magnets
12 and a spacing therebetween. The captivating army acting
on a armature magnet when in a position of FIG. 5 will
be abhorrence army 34 due to a vicinity of like polarity
army and captivate army during 36 given of a opposite
polarity of a south stick of a armature magnet, and the
north stick margin of a territory magnets. The relations strength
of this force is represented by a density of a force
line.

The following of a force vectors imposed on a armature
magnet as shown in FIG. 5 furnish a primary force matrix 38
toward a left, FIG. 5, displacing a armature magnet 24
toward a left. In FIG. 6 a captivating army behaving on the
armature magnet are represented by a same anxiety numerals
as in FIG. 5. While a army 34 consecrate abhorrence forces
given to pierce a north stick of a armature magnet away
from a stator magnets, a captivate army imposed upon
a south stick of a armature magnet and some of the
abhorrence forces, tend to pierce a armature magnet offer to
a left, and as a following force 38 continues to be toward
a left a armature magnet continues to be forced to the
left.

FIG. 7 represents offer banishment of a armature magnet
24 to a left with honour to a position of FIG. 6, and the
captivating army behaving thereon are represented by a same
anxiety numerals as in FIGS. 5 and 6, and a stator magnet
will continue to pierce to a left, and such transformation continues
a length of a lane 22 tangible by a stator magnets 12.

Upon a armature magnet being topsy-turvy such that a north
stick is positioned during a right as noticed in FIG. 5, and the
south stick is positioned during a left, a instruction of
transformation of a armature magnet relations to a stator magnets
is toward a right, and a speculation of transformation is identical
to that described above.

In FIG. 8 a comparison of armature magnets 40 and 42 are
illustrated that are connected by links 44. The armature
magnets are of a figure and pattern matching to that of
a essence of FIG. 5, nonetheless a magnets are staggered with
honour to any other in a instruction of magnet movement,
i.e., a instruction of a lane 22 tangible by a stator
magnets 12. By so towering a comparison of armature magnets a
smoother transformation of a companion armature magnets is
assembled as compared when regulating a singular armature magnet as
there is transformation in a army behaving on any armature
magnet as it moves above a lane 22 due to a change in
captivating army imposed thereon. The use of several armature
magnets tends to “smooth out” a thoroughness of forces
imposed on compared armature magnets, ensuing in a smoother
transformation of a armature magnet assembly. Of course, any
array of armature magnets competence be interconnected, singular only
by a breadth of a stator magnet lane 22.

In FIGS. 9 and 10 a rotary essence embracing a inventive
concepts is illustrated. In this essence a member of
operation is matching to that described above, nonetheless the
march of a stator and armature magnets is such that
revolution of a armature magnets is assembled about an axis,
rather than a linear transformation being achieved.

In FIGS. 9 and 10 a bottom is represented during 46 apportionment as a
support for a stator member 48. The stator member 48 is made
of a nonmagnetic material, such as fake plastic,
aluminum, or a like. The stator includes a cylindrical
aspect 50 carrying an axis, and a threaded gimlet 52 is
concentrically tangible in a stator. The stator includes an
annular slit 54 receiving an annular sleeve 56 of high
captivating margin permeability member such as Netic Co-Netic
and a comparison of stator magnets 58 are merged on the
sleeve 56 in spaced circumferential attribute as will be
apparent in FIG. 10. Preferably, a stator magnets 58 are
finished with thoroughness radial sides as to be of a wedge
pattern carrying a winding center aspect enchanting sleeve
56, and a convex outdoor stick aspect 60.

The armature 62, in a illustrated embodiment, is of a
dished pattern carrying a radial web portion, and an
axially fluctuating apportionment 64. The armature 62 is finished of a
nonmagnetic material, and an annular belt receiving slit 66
is tangible therein for receiving a belt for transmitting power
from a armature to a generator, or other appetite consuming
device. Three armature magnets 68 are mounted on a armature
apportionment 64, and such magnets are of a pattern matching to
a armature magnet pattern of FIGS. 5 by 7. The
magnets 68 are staggered with honour to any other in a
circumferential instruction wherein a magnets are not disposed
as 120.degree. circumferential relations to any other.
Rather, a slight bony towering of a armature magnets is
fascinating to “smooth out” a captivating army being imposed
on a armature as a outcome of a captivating army being
concurrently imposed on any of a armature magnets. The
towering of a armature magnets 68 in a circumferential
instruction produces a same outcome as a towering of the
armature magnets 40 and 42 as shown in FIG. 8.

The armature 62 is mounted on a threaded missile 70 by
antifriction march 72, and a missile 70 is threaded into
a stator threaded gimlet 52, and competence be rotated by a knob
74. In this demeanour revolution of a doorknob 74, and missile 70,
axially displaces a armature 62 with honour to a stator
magnets 58, and such axial banishment will unequivocally the
bulk of a captivating army imposed on a armature
magnets 68 by a stator magnets thereby determining a speed
of revolution of a armature.

As will be remarkable from FIGS. 4-7 and 9 and 10, an atmosphere gap
exists between a armature magnet or magnets and a stator
magnets and a dimension of this spacing, effects the
bulk of a army imposed on a armature magnet or
magnets. If a stretch between a armature magents, and the
stator magnets is reduced a army imposed on a armature
magnets by a stator magnets are increased, and a resultant
force matrix given to excommunicate a armature magnets in their
trail of transformation increases. However, a dwindling of the
spacing between a armature and stator magnets creates a
“pulsation” in a transformation of a armature magnets that is
objectionable, nonetheless can be, to some extent, minimized by using
a comparison of armature magnets. The augmenting of the
stretch between a armature and stator magnets reduces the
tapping bent of a armature magnet, nonetheless also reduces
a bulk of a captivating army imposed on a armature
magnets. Thus, a many effective spacing between a armature
magnets. Thus, a many effective spacing between a armature
and stator magnets is that spacing that produces a maximum
force matrix in a instruction of armature magnet movement,
with a smallest origination of disgusting pulsation.

In a disclosed embodiments a high permeability picture 20
and sleeve 56 are disclosed for concentrating a magnetic
margin of a stator magnets, and a armature magnets are
bent and have finished ends for captivating margin concentration
purposes. While such captivating margin thoroughness means result
in aloft army imposed on a armature magnets for given
magnet intensities, it is not dictated that a inventive
concepts be singular to a use of such captivating field
concentrating means.

As will be appreciated from a above outline of the
invention, a transformation of a armature magnet or magnets
resultsfrom a described attribute of components. The
length of a armature magnets as compared to a breadth of the
stator magnets and spacing therebetween, a dimension of the
atmosphere opening and a pattern of a captivating field, combined,
furnish a elite outcome and motion. The resourceful concepts
competence be used even nonetheless these relations competence be varied
within boundary not nonetheless tangible and a invention is dictated to
ring all dimensional relations that grasp the
elite idea of armature movement. By approach of example, with
honour to FIGS. 4-7, a following measure were used in an
handling prototype:

The length of armature magnet 24 is 31/8″, a stator magnets
12 are 1″ wide, 1/4″ thick and 4″ prolonged and pellet oriented. The
atmosphere opening between a poles of a armature magnet and the
stator magnets is approximately 11/2″ and a spacing between
a stator magnets is approximately 1/2″ inch.

In effect, a stator magnets conclude a captivating margin track
of a singular polarity transversely interrupted during spaced
locations by a captivating fields assembled by a lines of
force existent between a poles of a stator magnets and the
unidirectional force exerted on a armature magnet is a
outcome of a abhorrence and captivate army existent as the
armature magnet traverses this captivating margin track.

It is to be accepted that a resourceful judgment embraces an
arrangement wherein a armature magnet member is
still and a stator public is upheld for movement
and constitutes a relocating component, and other variations of
a resourceful judgment will be apparent to those learned in the
art nonetheless vacating from a range thereof. As used herein
a tenure “track” is dictated to embody both linear and
round arrangements of a immobile magnets, and the
“direction” or “length” of a lane is that direction
together or concentric to a dictated instruction of armature
magnet movement.


United States Patent  4,877,983

Magnetic Force Generating Method
Apparatus

Howard R. Johnson

( Oct 31, 1989 )

Abstract — A permanent magnet armature is
magnetically propelled along a guided trail by communication with
a margin within a suit territory singular on presumably side of the
trail by an arrangement of permanent stator magnets.

Inventors:  Johnson; Howard R. (Box 199, 314 N. Main,
Blacksburg, VA 24060)
Appl. No.:  799618   ~  Filed: 
Nov 19, 1985

Current U.S. Class: 310/12; 310/152 // Intern’l Class: 
H02K 041/00
Field of Search:  310/152,12,46

References Cited:
U.S. Patent Documents
USP # 4,074,153 (Feb., 1978) Baker, et al. (Cl. 310/12).
USP # 4,151,431 (Apr., 1979) Johnson (Cl. 310/12).

Primary Examiner: Skudy; R.    ~  
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Fleit, Jacobson, Cohn, Price, Holman
Stern

Claims

What is claimed as new is as follows:

1. In multiple with a mobile armature, means for guiding
transformation of a armature along a bound trail and a
permanent armature magnet carrying captivating poles of opposite
polarity spaced from any other along pronounced trail to settle a
captivating margin of singular border mobile with a armature and
captivating stator means for substantiating a still magnetic
suit territory along pronounced path, a alleviation comprising flux
emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on a stator means
on conflicting sides of pronounced trail for tying pronounced suit zone
by that pronounced trail extends and means ascent the
permanent armature magnet on a armature with a poles
thereof orientated relations to pronounced suit emitting surfaces on
a stator means for unidirectionally relocating a armature
along pronounced trail by a singular territory in response to
captivating communication between a mobile captivating margin and
a singular suit zone, pronounced captivating stator means including a
comparison of captivating embankment assemblies fast spaced from each
other along pronounced trail and respectively substantiating stationary
captivating fields, any of pronounced embankment assemblies including a
comparison of companion bar magnets substantially
adjacent pronounced singular suit territory exposing stick faces of
conflicting polarity in together spaced planes intersected by
pronounced path, and captivating means connected to pronounced interconnected
bar magnets exposing one of a suit emitting surfaces of said
one polarity perpendicular to pronounced together planes for
captivating communication of a still captivating fields.

2. The multiple of explain 1 wherein pronounced armature magnet is
winding between finish faces during that pronounced poles of opposite
polarity are located, a finish faces being orientated by the
ascent means in thoroughness propinquity to any other toward the
running means.

3. In multiple with a mobile armature, means for guiding
transformation of a armature along a bound trail and a
permanent armature magnet carrying captivating poles of opposite
polarity spaced from any other along pronounced trail to settle a
captivating margin of singular border mobile with a armature and
captivating stator means for substantiating a still magnetic
suit territory along pronounced path, a alleviation comprising flux
emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on a stator means
on conflicting sides of pronounced trail for tying pronounced suit zone
by that pronounced trail extends and means ascent the
permanent armature magnet on a armature with a poles faces
thereof orientated relations to pronounced suit emitting surfaces on
a stator means for unidirectionally relocating a armature
along pronounced trail by a singular territory in response to
captivating communication between a mobile captivating margin and
a singular suit zone, pronounced armature magnet being curved
between finish faces during that pronounced poles of conflicting polarity are
located, a finish faces being orientated by a ascent means
in thoroughness propinquity to any other toward a running means.

4. In multiple with a mobile armature, means for guiding
transformation of a armature along a bound trail and a
permanent armature magnet carrying captivating poles of opposite
polarity spaced from any other along pronounced trail to settle a
captivating margin of singular border mobile with a armature and
captivating stator means for substantiating a still magnetic
suit territory along pronounced path, a alleviation comprising flux
emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on a stator means
on conflicting sides of pronounced trail for tying pronounced suit zone
by that pronounced trail extends and means ascent the
permanent armature magnet on a armature with a poles
thereof orientated relations to pronounced suit emitting surfaces on
a stator means for unidirectionally relocating a armature
along pronounced trail by a singular territory in response to
captivating communication between a mobile captivating margin and
a singular suit zone, pronounced captivating stator means including a
span of permanent magnet assemblies carrying continuous,
opposed stick faces of pronounced one polarity adjacent said
singular zone, any of pronounced assemblies carrying means for varying
captivating margin appetite in a suit territory along pronounced path, and
a second armature magnet connected to a initial mentioned
armature magnet in counterpart picture propinquity thereto.

5. The multiple of explain 4 wherein pronounced armature magnet is
winding between finish faces during that pronounced poles of opposite
polarity are located, a finish faces being orientated by the
ascent means in a craft together to pronounced path.

6. In multiple with a mobile armature, means for guiding
transformation of a armature along a bound trail and a
permanent armature magnet mounted on a armature having
captivating poles of conflicting polarity spaced from any other
along pronounced path, a alleviation comprising a comparison of
permanent magnet embankment assemblies mounted in spaced propinquity to
any other along pronounced trail substantiating interacting stationary
captivating fields along pronounced path, any of pronounced assemblies
including stator magnets companion in surrounding
propinquity to pronounced trail and carrying stick faces of opposite
polarity aligned with together planes intersected by pronounced path
and captivating means organisation to a stick faces aligned with one of
a together planes for communication of a armature magnet
with pronounced still captivating fields for unidirectional
bearing of a armature along pronounced path, pronounced magnetic
means being an annular magnet carrying a radially center pole
aspect of one polarity enclosing a captivating suit territory through
that pronounced trail extends.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates in ubiquitous to a use of permanent
magnets to beget unidirectional relocating forces.

The era of unidirectional relocating army by
permanent magnets is already famous and famous in U.S. Pat.
Nos. 4,151,431 and 4,215,330 to Johnson and Hartmen,
respectively, by approach of example. According to applicant’s own
before Pat. No. 4,151,431, such army are generated by
captivating communication between a winding magnet bar of an
armature guided for transformation along a round trail and an
arrangement of spaced stator magnets carrying stick faces of one
polarity opposed a armature on one side thereof together to
a trail of movement.

It is therefore an vicious intent of a benefaction invention
to yield certain softened stator arrangements of permanent
magnets interacting with a permanent magnet armature for
unidirectional bearing thereof in a novel demeanour believed
to be some-more efficient.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In suitability with a benefaction invention, a armature magnet
is guided along a trail by a captivating suit territory singular on
conflicting sides of a trail by an arrangement of captivating pole
surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. According to one
embodiment, a suit territory is finished by spaced embankment assemblies
of magnets carrying unprotected stick faces of one polarity in a
craft perpendicular to a armature trail from that a magnetic
margin extends to a conflicting stick faces and a ring magnet
organisation to such conflicting stick faces of a other polarity, with
a radially center stick aspect of a same polarity producing a
captivating margin perpendicular to a initial mentioned margin to
their conflicting radially outdoor stick surfaces.

According to another embodiment, a suit territory is formed
between continual opposed stick surfaces of one polarity
on stator magnets organised to furnish a captivating margin of
varying appetite along a armature path.

In nonetheless another embodiment, during slightest dual winding bar magnets
are companion to form a armature with dual pairs of pole
faces spaced along a armature path.

These together with other objects and advantages that will
spin subsequently apparent reside in a sum of
construction and operation as some-more entirely hereinafter described
and claimed, anxiety being had to a concomitant drawings
combining a prejudiced hereof, wherein like numerals impute to like
tools throughout.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE
DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a somewhat
schematic side elevational perspective display an designation of the
benefaction invention in suitability with one embodiment, with
tools damaged divided and shown in section.

FIG. 2 is a
cross sectional perspective taken almost by a plane
indicated by territory line 2–2 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an lengthened prejudiced sectional perspective taken
almost by a craft indicated by territory line 3–3
in FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a tip devise perspective of an designation in accordance
with another essence of a invention.

FIG. 5 is a sectional perspective taken almost by a
craft indicated by territory line 5–5 in FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a sectional perspective taken almost by a
craft indicated by territory line 5–5 in FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a simplified side perspective by a suit territory shown
in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 with a armature bar magnet positioned
therein.

FIG. 8 is a tip devise perspective of an designation in accordance
with nonetheless another embodiment.

FIG. 9 is an lengthened prejudiced sectional perspective by a plane
indicated by territory line 9–9 in FIG. 8.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to a drawings in detail, FIG. 1 illustrates
one essence of a invention in that a captivating armature
generally referred to by anxiety symbol 10 is
unidirectionally propelled along a bound path
energetic by a suit running lane 12 organisation to a support or
support 14. The trail is represented by a line 16 extending
by stick faces 18 and 20 of conflicting polarity during the
longitudinal ends of a winding armature bar magnet 22. The
armature 10 in a illustrated instance includes a wheeled
automobile mountain 24 to that a armature magnet 22 is fixedly
cumulative with a stick faces 18 and 20 thoroughness toward the
running lane 12. The stick faces 18 and 20 are furthermore
orientated so that a captivating margin fluctuating between pole
faces 18 and 20 is mobile still within a suit territory 26
singular in surrounding propinquity to a guided trail during spaced
locations by stator embankment assemblies 28 finished by permanent
magnets organisation to a support support 14.

Each of a stator embankment assemblies 28 as shown in FIGS. 1-3,
includes 4 bar magnets 30 companion during corners by
non-magnetic elements 32, such as triangular wooden blocks as
some-more clearly seen in FIG. 3, to form a rectilinear enclosure
in surrounding propinquity to a lane 12. Pole faces 34 and 36
between that a still magentic margin extends are formed
on a bar magnets almost aligned with together spaced
planes in perpendicular intersecting propinquity to a trail line
16. The stick face 34 of one polarity (north) is effective
by a captivating margin to magnetically correlate with the
captivating margin of a armature magnet 22 causing
unidirectional bearing of a armature 10 as actually
celebrated during tests. Such captivating communication is obviously
shabby by a stick face 36 of conflicting polarity (south)
adjoining and organisation to an annular or round ring magnet 38
magnets 30. The companion and 38 competence be reason in assembled
propinquity by an outdoor skin or sheathing 40 as shown in FIG. 3.

The ring magnet 38 has a radially center stick aspect 42 of
a same polarity (north) as that of a stick faces 34 to
correlate with a other stick faces 36 as aforementioned, to
a ostracism of a radially outdoor stick aspect 44. The
apparent outcome of pronounced arrangement is to strive a net magnetic
force on a armature magnet 22 causing a observed
continuous, unidirectional bearing thereof by a gate
assemblies 28. Such assemblies 28 are spaced detached distance
contingent on a captivating margin appetite or strength of the
permanent magnets 30 and 38 that foreordain a effective axial
border of a aforementioned captivating fields compared with
a assemblies 28 and a armature magnet 22.

FIGS. 4-7 illustrate another essence of a invention
utilizing a same form of mobile armature 10 guided along a
bound trail by a support mounted lane 12 extending
by a suit territory 46 energetic by another form of
permanent magnet stator arrangement, generally referred to by
anxiety symbol 48. The stator 48 includes a span of
permanent magnet assemblies 50 fluctuating in together spaced
propinquity to any other on conflicting sides of a armature path
energetic by a lane 12. Each public 50 is a mirror
picture of a other so as to display continual opposed pole
surfaces finished by a captivating covering member 52 such as
Neodynium, mounted on companion ceramic bodies 54. The
opposed stick surfaces of a captivating layers 52 are of
like polarity (north), conflicting to a polarity of a pole
aspect of captivating covering sections 56 and 58 finished of Samarium
Cobalt, for example, and carried on a ceramic bodies 54. The
bodies 54 have transversely fluctuating prong portions 60 at
a adjoining ends so as to mountain a covering sections sections
58 aside presumably of covering sections 56 as some-more clearly
seen in FIGS. 4 and 6 to thereby change a captivating field
appetite along a guided armature trail within a limited
suit territory 46 in that a captivating fields of a stator
public 48 correlate with a captivating margin of bar magnet 22.

The winding armature magnet 22 is orientated within a flux
territory 46 between a opposed stick surfaces on 52 as
decorated in FIG. 7, with a stick faces 18 and 20 converging
toward a lane 12 as formerly described in tie with
FIGS. 1-3. However, it was found that extent propelling
bearing is assembled by best plcae of a trail line 16
by a stick faces 18 and 20 a stretch 62 closer to the
tip corner of aspect covering 52 than a reduce corner on the
support support 14.

FIGS. 8 and 9 illustrate nonetheless another essence of the
invention involving a same form of permanent magnet stator
arrangement 50 as described with honour to FIGS. 4-7. a
mutated form of armature 10′ is featured in FIGS. 8 and 9,
including dual winding armature magnets 64 that are mirror
images of any other with honour to an center abutting
apportionment 66. The magnets 64 are companion during a abutting
apportionment 66 in fixing with a craft containing a trail line
16 mainly between a opposed stick surfaces on 52. The
finish stick faces 68 and 70 for any magnet 64, are aligned with
a craft in together spaced propinquity between a trail line 16
and a stick aspect on 52. With a array of stick faces
thereby doubled for a armature, a aloft and some-more efficient
relocating bearing competence be achieved.

The foregoing is deliberate as scholastic usually of the
beliefs of a invention. Further, given numerous
modifications and changes will straightforwardly start to those skilled
in a art, it is not elite to border a invention to the
accurate construction and operation shown and described, and
accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents competence be
restorted to, descending within a range of a invention.


US Patent # 5,402,021

Magnetic Propulsion System

Howard R. Johnson

( Mar 28, 1995 )

Abstract — A captivating bearing complement including a
comparison of privately organised permanent magnets and a
captivating automobile propelled thereby along a trail tangible by the
permanent magnets. The captivating automobile that is to be
propelled includes a rigidly trustworthy armature comprising
several winding magnets. The bearing complement offer includes
dual together walls of permanent magnets organised so as to
conclude a together sides of a automobile path. Preferably, the
walls are matching to one another usually that a polarities
of a magnets that conclude one wall are conflicting from the
polarities of a analogous magnets in a conflicting wall.
A initial wall, for example, includes a array of generally
rectilinear magnets, any magnet organised with a
North-to-South pivot indicating longitudinally down a wall in
a dictated instruction of automobile travel. Each of the
rectilinear magnets is distant from a subsequent successive
rectilinear magnet by a thinner magnet, that thinner magnet
is organised with a North-to-South pivot indicating laterally
toward a conflicting wall and therefore perpendicular with
honour to a North-to-South pivot of a rectilinear magnets.
The conflicting (or second) wall includes a same general
arrangement of magnets, usually that a North-to-South axis
for any of a generally rectilinear magnets is in a
instruction conflicting from a instruction of automobile transport and
a North-to-South pivot of a thinner magnets points away
from a initial wall. In addition, a bearing system
includes several spin accelerators.

Inventors:  Johnson; Howard R. (1440 Harding Rd.,
Blacksburg, VA 24060)
Appl. No.:  064930  ~  Filed:  May 24,
1993

Current U.S. Class: 310/12; 198/619; 310/152
Intern’l Class:  B65G 035/06; H02K 041/00
Field of Search:  310/12,152,46 198/619,805

References Cited [Referenced By]

U.S. Patent Documents:
4,151,431 ~  Aug., 1979 ~ Johnson (Cl. 310/12).
4,215,330 ~ Jun., 1980 ~  Hartman (335/306).
4,877,983 ~ Oct., 1989  ~ Johnson (310/12).

Other References:
Advances in Permanent Magnetism, pp. 44-57 date
unknown.
Scientific American, Jan. 1989, pp. 90-97.
Introduction to Magnetic Materials, pp. 129-135 date
unknown.
Applications of Magnetism, pp. 42-47 date unknown.

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The benefaction invention relates to a captivating bearing system
including a comparison of privately organised permanent
magnets and a captivating automobile propelled thereby along a path
tangible by a permanent magnets.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The era of unidirectional relocating army by
permanent magnets is already famous and famous in U.S. Pat.
Nos. 4,151,431 and 4,877,983 to Johnson, and U.S. Pat. No.
4,215,330 to Hartmen, by approach of example. According to
applicant’s initial apparent (U.S. Pat. No. 4,151,431), such
army are generated by captivating communication between a curved
magnet bar of an armature guided for transformation along a circular
trail and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets carrying pole
faces of one polarity opposed a armature on one side thereof
together to a trail of movement.

According to applicant’s second apparent (U.S. Pat. No.
4,877,983), a armature magnet is mounted on a automobile and
guided along a trail by a captivating suit territory singular on
conflicting sides of a trail by an arrangement of captivating pole
surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. According to one
essence of a second patent, a suit territory is finished by
spaced embankment assemblies of magnets carrying unprotected stick faces of
one polarity in a craft perpendicular to a armature path
from that a captivating margin extends to a conflicting stick faces
and a ring magnet organisation to such conflicting stick faces of the
other polarity, with a radially center stick aspect of a same
polarity producing a captivating margin perpendicular to a first
mentioned margin to their conflicting radially outdoor pole
surfaces. Several other embodiments are illustrated including
variations in a armature structure and in a stator
structure; however, all of a embodiments learn use of an
annular stator assembly.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore an intent of a benefaction invention to provide
an softened captivating bearing complement carrying a comparison of
permanent magnets and a captivating automobile propelled thereby
along a trail tangible by a permanent magnets, wherein the
permanent magnets need not confine a trail of a magnetic
vehicle.

In sequence to grasp this and other objects, a present
invention comprises dual together walls of permanent magnets
organised so as to conclude a together sides of a automobile path.
The walls are matching to one another usually that the
polarities of a magnets that conclude one wall are opposite
from a polarities of a analogous magnets in the
conflicting wall.

A initial wall, for example, includes a array of generally
rectilinear magnets, any magnet organised with a
North-to-South pivot indicating longitudinally down a wall in
a dictated instruction of automobile travel. Each of the
rectilinear magnets is distant from a subsequent successive
rectilinear magnet by a thinner magnet, that thinner magnet
is organised with a North-to-South pivot indicating laterally
toward a conflicting wall and therefore perpendicular with
honour to a North-to-South pivot of a rectilinear magnets.

The pole-to-pole length of any thinner magnet is preferably
no some-more than half a breadth of a generally rectangular
magnets. Accordingly, a opening on a inside aspect of a wall
is tangible by a participation of any thinner magnet.

The conflicting (or second) wall includes a same general
arrangement of magnets, usually that a North-to-South axis
for any of a generally rectilinear magnets is in a
instruction conflicting from a instruction of automobile transport and
a North-to-South pivot of a thinner magnets points away
from a initial wall.

In addition, a bearing complement of a benefaction invention
includes several spin accelerators for crowding a magnetic
fields during bound positions along a length of the
walls. This crowding of a captivating fields serves to
feature a fields and causes a vehicle’s armature to be
accelerated faster than would differently be a box without
a spin accelerators.

The spin accelerators devise aside external from any of
a walls during bound positions along a longitudinal
length of any wall. Each spin accelerator comprises a
generally rectilinear permanent magnet that is preferably
matching to that of a initial and second walls. Each spin
accelerator offer includes a shorter magnet carrying a smaller
pole-to-pole length than that of a generally rectangular
magnet and a crowd separating a generally rectilinear magnet
of a spin accelerator from a shorter magnet.

The march of a generally rectilinear magnet in the
spin accelerator is energetic by that stick of a wall’s
thinner magnet is opposed outwardly. The rectilinear magnet’s
march is such that face-to-face hit is established
between conflicting poles of a generally rectilinear magnet in
a spin accelerator and a thinner magnet in a wall.
Accordingly, a North-to-South pivot of a generally
rectilinear magnet in a spin accelerator points in a same
instruction as a North-to-South pivot of a thinner magnet in
a wall. The shorter magnet in a spin accelerator is
offer organised with a North-to-South pivot indicating in the
same ubiquitous instruction as that of a thinner magnet in the
wall; nonetheless here, an strident bony lean divided from the
North-to-South pivot of a thinner magnet is energetic by
a wedge. In particular, a angle of a crowd determines
a strident angle that exists between a North-to-South axis
of a shorter magnet in a spin accelerator and the
North-to-South pivot of a thinner magnet in a wall.

The captivating automobile that is to be propelled by a instant
bearing complement includes a rigidly trustworthy armature
comprising several winding magnets. Each winding magnet is
organised on a automobile such that a North-to-South pivot is
together with honour to that of a other winding magnets. In
particular, a North-to-South axes of all a winding magnets
infer in a same instruction as a North-to-South axes of the
thinner magnets in any wall. The automobile itself is preferably
a wheeled automobile mounted on a track; however, it is
accepted that other automobile structures will sufficient so long
as a automobile is confirmed between a walls of the
bearing system.

In operation, a captivating fields total by a dual walls
strive a relocating force on a armature of a automobile in the
elite instruction of travel. Since a armature of a vehicle
is rigidly trustworthy to a vehicle, a automobile itself begins
to accelerate and is hence set in suit by a propulsion
system.

Preferably, a winding magnets of a automobile armature are
“Alnico 8” magnets sloping with neodymium magnets. The magnets
that consecrate a walls and spin accelerators are
preferably finished of neodymium and ceramic material, usually for
a thinner magnets. The thinner magnets are preferably made
of rubber or plastic, and any can enclose a comparison of
captivating rubber or cosmetic layers.

Although a benefaction invention has been described with regard
to generally rectilinear magnets, it is accepted that other
permanent magnet shapes will suffice, including nonetheless not
singular to generally cylindrical shapes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a schematic devise perspective of a captivating propulsion
complement in suitability with a elite essence of the
benefaction invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

With anxiety to FIG. 1, a elite essence of the
resourceful captivating bearing complement and automobile propelled
thereby will now be described.

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a bearing complement 10
comprising dual together captivating walls 12,14 that are
stationary, and an armature 16 rigidly trustworthy to a vehicle
18. The dual together walls 12,14 are finished from several
permanent magnets organised so as to conclude a together sides
of a automobile path. The elite instruction of automobile transport is
indicated by an arrow A in FIG. 1. The dual walls 12,14 are
matching to one another usually that a polarities of the
magnets that conclude one wall 12 are conflicting from the
polarities of a analogous magnets in a conflicting wall
14. A initial wall 12, for example, includes a array of
generally rectilinear magnets 20, any magnet organised with a
North-to-South pivot indicating longitudinally down a wall in
a dictated instruction of automobile transport (indicated by arrow
A). Each of a magnets 20 preferably comprises a ceramic
magnet with a neodymium north pole. In addition, any of the
generally rectilinear magnets 20 is distant from a next
unbroken rectilinear magnet 20 by a thinner magnet 22. The
thinner magnets 22 are organised with their North-to-South axes
indicating aside toward a conflicting wall 14 and therefore
perpendicular with honour to a North-to-South pivot of the
rectilinear magnets 20. Each thinner magnet 22 is preferably
finished from rubber or cosmetic henceforth captivating material.
Also, a pole-to-pole length of any thinner magnet 22 is
preferably no some-more than half a breadth of a generally
rectilinear magnets 20. Consequently, a opening 24 on a inside
aspect of a wall 12 is tangible by a participation of each
thinner magnet 22.

The conflicting (or second) wall 14 includes a same general
arrangement of magnets 20,22, usually that a North-to-South
pivot for any of a generally rectilinear magnets 20 points
in a instruction conflicting from a instruction of automobile travel,
while a North-to-South axes of a thinner magnets 22 point
divided from a initial wall 12.

By arranging a thinner magnets 22 between a generally
rectilinear magnets 20 in a foregoing manner, there is a
stick shading outcome on a magnets 20 of a walls 12,14.

In addition, a bearing complement 10 of a preferred
essence includes several spin accelerators 26 for crowding
a captivating fields during bound positions along the
length of a walls 12,14. This crowding of a magnetic
fields serves to feature a fields and causes a vehicle’s
armature to be accelerated faster than would differently be the
box nonetheless a spin accelerators.

The spin accelerators 26 devise aside external from each
of a walls 12,14 during bound positions along the
longitudinal length of any wall 12,14. According to the
elite embodiment, a spin accelerators 26 are positioned
along a walls 12,14 during any other thinner magnet 22 (as is
shown in a core of FIG. 1). Each spin accelerator 26
comprises a generally rectilinear permanent magnet 28 that is
preferably matching or unequivocally matching to that of a initial and
second walls 12,14. Each spin accelerator 26 offer includes
a shorter magnet 30 carrying a smaller pole-to-pole length than
that of a generally rectilinear magnet 28 and a crowd 32
separating a generally rectilinear magnet 28 of a spin
accelerator 26 from a shorter magnet 30. The march of
a generally rectilinear magnet 28 in a spin accelerator 26
is energetic by that stick of a wall’s thinner magnet 22 is
opposed outwardly. The rectilinear magnet’s march is such
that face-to-face hit is energetic between opposite
poles of a generally rectilinear magnet 28 in a spin
accelerator 26 and a thinner magnet 22 in a wall 12,14.
Accordingly, a North-to-South pivot of a generally
rectilinear magnet 28 in a spin accelerator 26 points in the
same instruction as a North-to-South pivot of a thinner
magnet 22 in a wall 12,14. The shorter magnet 30 in a spin
accelerator 26 is offer organised with a North-to-South
pivot indicating in a same ubiquitous instruction as that of the
thinner magnet 22 in a wall 12,14; nonetheless here, an acute
bony lean divided from a North-to-South pivot of a thinner
magnet 22 is energetic by a crowd 32. In particular, the
angle .alpha. of a crowd determines a strident angle which
exists between a North-to-South pivot of a shorter magnet
30 and a North-to-South pivot of a thinner magnet 22 in the
wall 12,14. The shorter magnet 30 preferably consists of
neodymium.

The captivating automobile 18 that is to be propelled by the
benefaction bearing complement 10 includes a rigidly attached
armature 16 comprising several winding magnets 34. Each curved
magnet 34 is organised on a automobile 18 such that its
North-to-South pivot is together with honour to that of the
other winding magnets 34. In particular, a North-to-South
axes of all a winding magnets 34 infer in a same direction
as a North-to-South axes of a thinner magnets 22 in each
wall 12,14. The automobile 18 itself, according to a preferred
embodiment, is a wheeled automobile mounted on a lane 36. It is
understood, however, that other automobile structures will
sufficient so prolonged as a automobile is confirmed between a walls
12,14 of a bearing complement 10.

In operation, when a automobile 18 is positioned as is shown
in FIG. 1, a captivating fields total by a dual walls 12,14
strive a relocating force on a armature 16 of a automobile 18
in a elite instruction of transport (arrow A). Since the
armature 16 is rigidly trustworthy to a automobile 18, a vehicle
18 itself starts to accelerate and hence is set in suit by
a bearing complement 10.

Furthermore, given a spin accelerators 26 offer to crowd
and thereby feature a captivating fields during predetermined
positions along a walls 12,14, a acceleration of the
automobile is extended as a automobile passes these predetermined
positions.

The spin accelerators 26 can be topsy-turvy in sequence to lessen
their efficacy during crowding a captivating fields. Reversing
of a spin accelerators 26 can be achieved by rotating
a spin accelerators 26 so that a shorter magnets 30 tilt
divided from a dictated instruction of automobile travel, rather
than in a instruction of transport as is a box for the
illustrated embodiment.

Preferably, a winding magnets 34 of a automobile armature 16
are “Alnico 8” magnets sloping with neodymium magnets, while
a wedges 32 enclose timber or matching member and an angle
.alpha. of 45 to 90 degrees.

The breadth w.sub.20, height, and pole-to-pole length 1.sub.20
of a generally rectilinear magnets 20 in any wall 12,13 are
0.75 inches to 1.25 inches, 3.75 to 4.25 inches, and 1.25
inches to 1.75 inches, respectively. The breadth w.sub.22,
height, and pole-to-pole length 1.sub.22 of a thinner
magnets 22 in a walls 12,14 are 1 in. to 1.5 inches, 3.75
inches to 4.25 inches, and no some-more than one half a width
w.sub.20 of a generally rectilinear magnets, respectively.
In a spin accelerators 26, a breadth w.sub.28, height, and
pole-to-pole length 1.sub.28 of a generally rectangular
magnets 28 are 1.125 to 1.625 inches, 3.75 to 4.25 inches, and
0.875 inches to 1.375 inches, respectively, while a width
w.sub.32, height, and pole-to-pole length 1.sub.32 of the
shorter magnets 30 are 0.75 in. to 1.25 inches, 3.75 inches
to 4.25 inches, and 0.125 in. to 0.375 inch, respectively.

Preferably, a stretch separating a walls 12,14, is such
that any wall 12,14 is 0.5 in. to 1.25 inches divided from the
tips of a armature magnets 34, both walls 12,14 being
inner from a tips of a armature 16. Also, a curved
magnets 34 of a armature 16 are preferably 0.375 in. to
0.625 in. detached from one another.

Testing of a foregoing antecedent bearing complement resulted
in a automobile relocating 2 feet in one second.

Although a benefaction invention has been described with
anxiety to a elite embodiment, it is accepted that
several modifications to this essence will become
subsequently apparent to those carrying typical ability in the
art. In this regard, a range of a invention is limited
usually by a claims appended hereto, and not by a illustrated
embodiment.


Tom Bearden Comments 
( Cribbed from www.greaterthings.com )

From: “Karl” krlbrgmnn@mailandnews.com
To: “Sterling D. Allan, PerenTech.com”
sterlingda@perentech.com
Sent: Thursday, Dec 19, 2002 2:01 PM
Subject: Truth about Howard Johnson and his engine

Sterling,

Just a discerning note to let we know we spoke to Tom Bearden
currently and, per a matter on your webpage by your
“anonymous source” who pronounced “Howard Johnson never was means to
get a rotary chronicle to work.  He was usually means to get
a linear chronicle working, and there were some questions
about a viability.”, Tom pronounced such a chairman doesn’t know
what they are articulate about.  I’d contend Tom is in a best
position to know, given he and Howard have been friends for
decades and Howard has privately brought a functional, rotary
PMM to Tom’s house, and they’ve played with it for
hours.  Next to Howard himself, I’d cruise Tom to be
a best apparatus on a theme of HJ’s PMM.

He also pronounced that Howard is still operative on removing another
functioning territory assembled (he’s had countless setbacks over
a years after his operative territory was vandalized by thieves
that pennyless into Howard’s emporium and stole usually a magnets off
that model, withdrawal many $K value of other member nearby
untouched).  Howard is still plugging divided any day, at
over 70 years old, nonetheless his wife’s health problems are keeping
him busy.  However, he has gotten bending adult with a
respectable, honest businessman who is financing him and
Howard also now has some younger assistance to do a grunt work
that is apropos worse for him.  All in all, Tom hopes
to see some genuine swell being finished for Howard in a next
year or so.

Tom mentioned that there are a few vicious things that
anyone who wants to successfully build a operative HJ PMM needs
to know, some of that are substantially apparent to a more
gifted builders:

1) The many vicious member is a accurate machining of the
magnets.  Joe Q. Public, with his solid saw, cutting
his possess magnets by palm has tiny possibility of subsequent in
moulding a magnets to a aerospace-critical specs that are
a smallest necessary, many reduction duplicating that attainment several
times for any compulsory part.

2) Alignment of a tools is rarely vicious too.  One
slight misalignment and a engine will not run continuously.

3) All magnets aren’t a same.  This application
requires expensive, intensely high peculiarity magnets. 
Howard, in sequence to get them cheaper, was shopping them in $50K
lots from China, where high peculiarity and a reduce cost can be
had.

I also spoke with a lady named Gary Hanson who had been
in hold with Howard years ago when Gary was perplexing to build
Howard’s motor.  Howard told him, as we consider most
researchers on this know now, that a engine *can* be build
directly from a apparent nonetheless that there needs to be 5 or 6
armtures and not usually a one that is shown as an illustration
in a patent.  Just wish to make certain any newbies
know this.

I wish some of this has helped transparent adult any misunderstandings
for those of us meddlesome in building a organic HJ
PMM.  My opinion is that, if we wish to do it right, go
to a horse’s mouth (Howard) or else as tighten as we can
presumably get (Tom).  Hopefully, doing so will capacitate us
to make this engine a reality.

Regards, Karl


Tom Bearden: Chasing a Wild Dragon  

[Excerpts from www.cheniere.org ]

Howard Johnson is also a reputable colleague, whom we very
many admire. (See Figure 23). Howard has continued to work
sensitively and patiently on his law permanent magnet
motor, [note 31] including patenting several captivating gates,
etc. that are compulsory to make such a engine work in a rotary
configuration. [note 32] Howard employs a two-particle theory
of magnetism; i.e., any captivating suit line is envisioned as
carrying a molecule roving from a north stick to a south
pole, and also a molecule roving from a south stick to the
north pole. The particles are spinning; a forward-time
molecule spins in one direction, and a antiparticle spins in
a other direction. Howard afterwards rather separates a two
molecule flows. [note 33] In other words, Johnson splits the
suit lines themselves, into dual conflicting pieces. When so
separated, a member lines are now curls, so their paths
curve. The paths of a dual “curl particles” are different;
one curls in one instruction and a other curls in a opposite
direction. Further, a rule of one form of curl
molecule gives a “time-forward” aspect, while a predominance
of a other form of twist molecule gives a “time-reversed”
aspect. Johnson is so means to occupy a deeper kind of
draw than a textbooks currently contain. He
demonstrates that a “spin-altered” captivating assembly
exhibiting (to a compass or other such detector) a north
polarity can attract another unaltered captivating assembly
exhibiting a north polarity. In short, he can make a north
stick attract a north pole. We will give we offer insight
into Johnson’s two-particle speculation in a destiny article. [note
34] We will also explain how and given a physicists missed
that antiparticle in a captivating field’s suit lines, and
thereby unsuccessful to allege a speculation of draw to a deeper
level. Make no mistake, one day when a new speculation is done,
Johnson competence good be awarded a Nobel Prize for his epochal
find of a deeper structure of magnetism.

Footnotes:

[32] we privately saw and closely examined one demonstration
rotary Johnson permanent magnet engine some years ago, and
toyed with it for about one hour. It would really self-
stagger as prolonged as we wished to assent it to turn. It was not
a absolute device during all, nonetheless usually a tiny laboratory “proof
of principle” prototype. It had cost Johnson an enormous
volume of time, labor, and optimization to get a critical
composition compulsory of his dual magnet assemblies. But the
device had no appetite source other than a permanent magnet
assemblies themselves. Johnson’s nonlinear rotor and stator
magnets interacted with any other in a demeanour to mangle local
symmetry. So his appurtenance was an open complement and therefore a
slight overunity device; it was not a perpetuum mobile.

[33] As we have forked out regularly in a past, photons
also lift time, not usually energy. We have formerly shown the
routine and a photon communication resource that creates the
upsurge of time itself; we will plead this resource in the
future. So when Johnson separates a particles and
antiparticles, not usually does he partially apart them
according to spin, nonetheless he also alters a internal impression of
time upsurge during that a ensuing captivating margin forces
contingency appear. In other words, he accomplishes a partial
subdivision of time-forward and time- topsy-turvy polar
interactions. A south stick is usually a time- topsy-turvy magnetic
north pole, in a initial place! So a north stick of a bar
magnet that is rather time topsy-turvy on one side will
partially act on that side usually like a south pole. On the
other side it will continue to act like a normal north pole.
By partially time-reversing (phase conjugating) one side of
a north captivating stick piece, Johnson creates that side look
and act like a south pole. that approach Howard is means to create
dual north poles, one on a stator and a other on a rotor, and
time-reverse prejudiced of one face of a stator’s north magnetic
pole-piece. Therefore when a correct sides of a stator and
rotor north poles are facing, they attract any other,
discordant to a compulsory textbook. The dual poles then
repel any other routinely as shortly as a north rotor poles
passes a north stator pole. Hence Johnson can make a
surrounding north stick stator public “draw in” an
entrance north stick rotor assembly, and afterwards flog it on out
a other side, given he has damaged a internal magnetic
symmetry. In short, Johnson’s captivating embankment can yield a
legitimate member of unidirectional captivating thrust, which
means that he can indeed make a rotary permanent motor. Simply
put, this “partially separating a spin particles,” and
thereby partially proviso conjugating one face of a magnet, is
what Johnson calls a “gate,” and this is a law secret
by that his magnet assemblies can be finished self-powering. The
whole routine is still unequivocally meticulous, and public and
adjustments are intensely critical. With Johnson’s blessings
we wish to strew some-more light on this theme in entrance articles.

[34] For a simple essay on rotary permanent magnet motors,
see T.E. Bearden, “On Rotary Permanent Magnet Motors and
‘Free’ Energy,” Raum Zeit, 1(3): 43-53
(Aug.-Sep. 1989).






  
Assembled



Chassis


  
Endplate


  
Magnetic Shield


  
Motor-Rotor

Rotor-Magnet

Rotors



Rotor Magnet Spacing Tool

Stator

Stator-Rotor-Chassis




Article source: http://rexresearch.com/johnson/1johnson.htm

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