Geothermal energy

نوشته شده در موضوع تولید انرژی رایگان در 08 دسامبر 2016

Geothermal energy (from a Greek roots geo, clarification earth, and thermos, clarification heat) is appetite done by feverishness inside a Earth’s crust.[1] It’s purify and sustainable.

Although a Sun does feverishness a aspect of a Earth, feverishness from inside a Earth is not caused by a Sun. The geothermal appetite of a Earth’s membrane comes 20% from a strange arrangement of a planet, and 80% from a prohibited spoil of minerals.[2][3] The Earth is hottest during a core and, from a core to a surface, a feverishness gets gradually cooler.

Resources of geothermal appetite operation from a shoal belligerent to prohibited H2O and prohibited stone found a few miles underneath a Earth’s surface, and down even deeper to a intensely high temperatures of fiery stone called magma. It has been used for showering from Paleolithic times, though is now improved famous for creation electricity.[1]

All over a world, geothermal appetite has been used to make about 10 gigawatts of electricity in 2007, and give 0.3% of a electricity indispensable around a world. When used to beget electricity, geothermal appetite plants typically offer consistent output.[4]

Geothermal appetite is also used directly for district heating, or in other heating and cooling applications. Buildings in Iceland are exhilarated in this approach from a country’s many geothermal sites.

Power plants and thermal applications of geothermal appetite are mature technologies, since extended geothermal systems (EGS) projects are a new form of application.[4]

Almost everywhere, a shoal belligerent or top 10 feet (3m) of a Earth’s aspect maintains a scarcely consistent feverishness between 50° and 60°F (10° and 16°C). Geothermal feverishness pumps can daub into this apparatus to feverishness and cold buildings. A geothermal feverishness siphon complement consists of a feverishness pump, an atmosphere smoothness complement (ductwork), and a feverishness exchanger – a complement of pipes buried in a shoal belligerent nearby a building. In a winter, a feverishness siphon removes feverishness from a feverishness exchanger and pumps it into a indoor atmosphere smoothness system. In a summer, a routine is reversed, and a feverishness siphon moves feverishness from a indoor atmosphere into a feverishness exchanger. The feverishness private from a indoor atmosphere during a summer can also be used to yield a giveaway source of prohibited water.

Geothermal appetite escapes as prohibited H2O during many prohibited springs or as steam during geysers.

In a United States, many geothermal reservoirs of prohibited H2O are in a western states, Alaska, and Hawaii. Wells can be drilled into subterraneous reservoirs for a era of electricity. Some geothermal appetite plants use a steam from a fountainhead to appetite a turbine / generator, while others use a prohibited H2O to boil a operative liquid that vaporizes and afterwards turns a turbine. Hot H2O nearby a aspect of Earth can be used directly for heat. Direct-use applications embody heating buildings, flourishing plants in greenhouses, drying crops, heating H2O during fish farms, and several industrial processes such as pasteurizing milk.

Hot dry stone resources start during inlet of 3 to 5 miles (5-8 km) everywhere underneath a Earth’s aspect and during obtuse inlet in certain areas. Access to these resources involves injecting cold H2O down one well, present it by prohibited fractured rock, and sketch off a exhilarated H2O from another well. Currently, nobody uses this process commercially. Existing record also does not nonetheless concede liberation of feverishness directly from magma, a really low and many absolute apparatus of geothermal energy.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.01.1 Earth Science. United States of America: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 2001. pp. 211. ISBN 0-03-055667-8.
  2. How Geothermal appetite works. Retrieved on 2013-04-24.
  3. Turcotte D.L. Schubert G. 2002. Geodynamics. 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, 136–137. ISBN 978-0-521-66624-4
  4. 4.04.1 IPCC (2011). “Special report: renewable appetite sources”. p. 4.

Other websites[change | change source]

The Simple English Wiktionary has a clarification for: geothermal.

Wikimedia Commons has media associated to: Geothermal energy

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