Bluetooth low energy

نوشته شده در موضوع تولید انرژی رایگان در 11 سپتامبر 2016

Bluetooth low energy (Bluetooth LE, BLE, marketed as Bluetooth Smart[1]) is a wireless personal area network record designed and marketed by a Bluetooth Special Interest Group directed during novel applications in a healthcare, fitness, beacons,[2] security, and home party industries.[3] Compared to Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth Smart is dictated to yield extremely reduced appetite expenditure and cost while progressing a identical communication range.

Bluetooth Smart was creatively introduced underneath a name Wibree by Nokia in 2006.[4] It was joined into a categorical Bluetooth customary in 2010 with a adoption of a Bluetooth Core Specification Version 4.0.

Mobile handling systems including iOS, Android, Windows Phone and BlackBerry, as good as OS X, Linux, and Windows 8, natively support Bluetooth Smart. The Bluetooth SIG predicts that by 2018 some-more than 90 percent of Bluetooth-enabled smartphones will support Bluetooth Smart.[5]

Compatibility[edit]

Bluetooth Smart is not backward-compatible with a prior (often called “Classic”) Bluetooth protocol. The Bluetooth 4.0 specification permits inclination to practice possibly or both of a LE and Classic systems.

Bluetooth Smart uses a same 2.4 GHz radio frequencies as Classic Bluetooth, that allows dual-mode inclination to share a singular radio antenna. LE does, however, use a easier modulation system.

Bluetooth Smart branding[edit]

In 2011, a Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) announced a Bluetooth Smart trademark so as to explain harmony between a new low appetite inclination and other Bluetooth devices.[6]

  • Bluetooth Smart Ready indicates a dual-mode device concordant with both Classic and low appetite peripherals.[7]
  • Bluetooth Smart indicates a low energy-only device that requires possibly a Smart Ready or another Smart device in sequence to function.

In a new branding information (MAY16), a Bluetooth SIG has done one elemental change. It is phasing out a Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready logos and word outlines and has reverted to regulating a Bluetooth trademark and word mark. The trademark uses a new blue color.

Target market[edit]

The Bluetooth SIG identifies a series of markets for low appetite technology, quite in a intelligent home, health, competition and aptness sectors.[8] Cited advantages include:

  • low appetite requirements, handling for “months or years” on a symbol cell
  • small stretch and low cost
  • compatibility with a vast commissioned bottom of mobile phones, tablets and computers

History[edit]

In 2001, researchers during Nokia dynamic several scenarios contemporary wireless technologies did not address.[9] The association began building a wireless record blending from a Bluetooth customary that would yield reduce appetite use and cost while minimizing a differences from Bluetooth technology. The formula were published in 2004 regulating a name Bluetooth Low End Extension.[10]

After serve growth with partners, e.g., within EU FP6 plan MIMOSA,[11] actively promoted and upheld also by STMicroelectronics given a early stage,[12] record was expelled to a open in Oct 2006 with a formula name Wibree.[13] After negotiations with Bluetooth SIG members, an agreement was reached in Jun 2007 to embody Wibree in destiny Bluetooth selection as a Bluetooth ultra-low-power technology, now famous as Bluetooth Smart technology.[14][15]

Integration of Bluetooth Smart with chronicle 4.0 of a Core Specification was finished in early 2010.[16] The initial smartphone to practice a 4.0 selection was a iPhone 4S, expelled in Oct 2011.[17] A series of other manufacturers expelled Bluetooth Smart Ready inclination in 2012.

Applications[edit]

Borrowing from a strange Bluetooth specification, a Bluetooth SIG defines several profiles — specifications for how a device works in a sold focus — for low appetite devices. Manufacturers are approaching to practice a suitable specifications for their device in sequence to safeguard compatibility. A device might enclose implementations of mixed profiles.

All tide low appetite focus profiles are shaped on a ubiquitous charge form (GATT), a ubiquitous selection for promulgation and receiving brief pieces of information famous as attributes over a low appetite link.[18] Bluetooth 4.0 provides low appetite expenditure with aloft bit rates.

In 2010 an Australian association called Daelibs was a initial association to precedence Bluetooth for indoor closeness intuiting in a Seeknfind plcae assemblage solution. Daelibs designed and made a Bluetooth guide for use in selling centres shaped on a Bluegiga chipset.

In 2014, Cambridge Silicon Radio (now partial of Qualcomm) launched CSR Mesh. CSR Mesh custom uses Bluetooth Smart to promulgate with other Bluetooth Smart inclination in a network. Each device can pass a information brazen to other Bluetooth Smart inclination formulating a “mesh” effect. For example, switching off an whole building of lights from a singular smartphone.[5][clarification needed] The Bluetooth SIG recently shaped a Smart Mesh investigate organisation to investigate and conclude a use cases in an bid to conclude a customary specification.[19][20][21]

Health caring profiles[edit]

There are many profiles for Bluetooth Smart inclination in medical applications. The Continua Health Alliance consortium promotes these in team-work with a Bluetooth SIG.

  • BLP (Blood Pressure Profile) — for blood vigour measurement.
  • HTP (Health Thermometer Profile) — for medical heat dimensions devices.
  • GLP (Glucose Profile) — for blood glucose monitors.
  • CGMP (Continuous Glucose Monitor Profile)

Sports and aptness profiles[edit]

Profiles for sporting and aptness accessories include:

  • BCS (Body Composition Service)
  • CSCP (Cycling Speed and Cadence Profile) — for sensors trustworthy to a bicycle or practice bike to magnitude intonation and circle speed.
  • CPP (Cycling Power Profile)
  • HRP (Heart Rate Profile) — for inclination that magnitude heart rate
  • LNP (Location and Navigation Profile)
  • RSCP (Running Speed and Cadence Profile)
  • WSP (Weight Scale Profile)

Internet Connectivity[edit]

  • IPSP (Internet Protocol Support Profile)

Generic Sensors[edit]

  • ESP (Environmental Sensing Profile)
  • UDS (User Data Service)

HID Connectivity[edit]

  • HOGP (HID over GATT Profile)…

Proximity sensing[edit]

“Electronic leash” applications are good matched to a prolonged battery life probable for ‘always-on’ devices.[22] Manufacturers of iBeacon inclination practice a suitable specifications for their device to make use of closeness intuiting capabilities upheld by Apple Inc. concordant iDevices.[23]

Relevant focus profiles include:

  • FMP — a “find me” form — allows one device to emanate an warning on a second unnoticed device.[24]
  • PXP — a closeness form — allows a closeness guard to detect possibly a closeness contributor is within a tighten range. Physical closeness can be estimated regulating a radio receiver’s RSSI value, nonetheless this does not have comprehensive calibration of distances. Typically, an alarm might be sounded when a stretch between a inclination exceeds a set threshold.

Alerts and time profiles[edit]

  • The phone warning standing form and warning presentation form concede a customer device to accept notifications such as incoming call alerts from another device.
  • The time form allows tide time and time section information on a customer device to be set from a server device, such as between a wristwatch and a mobile phone’s network time.

Battery[edit]

  • The Battery Service exposes a Battery State and Battery Level of a singular battery or set of batteries in a device.

Implementation[edit]

Chip[edit]

Starting in late 2009, Bluetooth Smart integrated circuit implementations were announced by a series of manufacturers. Implementations ordinarily use program radio so updates to a selection can be accommodated by a firmware upgrade.

Hardware[edit]

Current mobile inclination are ordinarily expelled with hardware and program support for both Classic Bluetooth and a Bluetooth Smart standard. The Bluetooth SIG maintains a list of devices.

Operating systems[edit]

  • iOS 5 and later[25]
  • Windows Phone 8.1[26]
  • Windows 8 and later[27]
  • Android 4.3 and later[28]
  • BlackBerry 10[29]
  • Linux 3.4 and after by BlueZ 5.0[30]
  • Unison OS 5.2 [31]

Technical details[edit]

Radio interface[edit]

Bluetooth Smart record operates in a same spectrum operation (the 2.400 GHz-2.4835 GHz ISM band) as Classic Bluetooth technology, though uses a opposite set of channels. Instead of a Classic Bluetooth 79 1-MHz channels, Bluetooth Smart has 40 2-MHz channels. Within a channel, information is transmitted regulating Gaussian magnitude change modulation, identical to Classic Bluetooth’s Basic Rate scheme. The bit rate is 1Mbit/s, and a limit broadcast appetite is 10 mW. Further sum are given in Volume 6 Part A (Physical Layer Specification) of a Bluetooth Core Specification V4.0.

Bluetooth Smart uses magnitude hopping to negate narrowband division problems. Classic Bluetooth also uses magnitude hopping though a sum are different; as a result, while both FCC and ETSI systematise Bluetooth record as an FHSS scheme, Bluetooth Smart is personal as a complement regulating digital modulation techniques or a direct-sequence widespread spectrum.[32]

More technical sum might be performed from executive selection as published by a Bluetooth SIG. Note that appetite expenditure is not partial of a Bluetooth specification.

Software model[edit]

All Bluetooth Smart inclination use a Generic Attribute Profile (GATT). The focus programming interface offering by a Bluetooth Smart wakeful handling complement will typically be shaped around GATT concepts.[34] GATT has a following terminology:

Client
A device that triggers GATT commands and requests, and accepts responses, for example, a mechanism or smartphone.
Server
A device that receives GATT commands and requests, and earnings responses, for example, a heat sensor.
Characteristic
A information value eliminated between customer and server, for example, a tide battery voltage.
Service
A collection of associated characteristics, that work together to perform a sold function. For instance, a Health Thermometer use includes characteristics for a heat dimensions value, and a time interlude between measurements.
Descriptor
A descriptor provides additional information about a characteristic. For instance, a heat value evil might have an denote of a units (e.g. Celsius), and a limit and smallest values that a sensor can measure. Descriptors are discretionary – any evil can have any series of descriptors.

Some use and evil values are used for executive functions – for instance, a indication name and sequence series can be review as customary characteristics within a Generic Access service. Services might also embody other services as sub-functions; a categorical functions of a device are supposed primary services, and a auxiliary functions they impute to are secondary services.

Identifiers[edit]

Services, characteristics, and descriptors are collectively referred to as attributes, and identified by UUIDs. Any implementer might collect a pointless or pseudorandom UUID for exclusive uses, though a Bluetooth SIG have indifferent a operation of UUIDs (of a form xxxxxxxx-0000-1000-8000-00805F9B34FB [35]) for customary attributes. For efficiency, these identifiers are represented as 16-bit or 32-bit values in a protocol, rather than a 128 pieces compulsory for a full UUID. For example, a Device Information use has a brief formula 0x180A, rather than 0000180A-0000-1000-… . The full list is kept in a Bluetooth Assigned Numbers ask online.

GATT Operations[edit]

The GATT custom provides a series of commands for a customer to learn information about a server. These include:

  • Discover UUIDs for all primary services
  • Find a use with a given UUID
  • Find delegate services for a given primary service
  • Discover all characteristics for a given service
  • Find characteristics relating a given UUID
  • Read all descriptors for a sold characteristic

Commands are also supposing to read (data send from server to client) and write (from customer to server) a values of characteristics:

  • A value might be review possibly by naming a characteristic’s UUID, or by a handle value (which is returned by a information find commands above).
  • Write operations always brand a evil by handle, though have a choice of possibly or not a response from a server is required.
  • ‘Long read’ and ‘Long write’ operations can be used when a length of a characteristic’s information exceeds a MTU of a radio link.

Finally, GATT offers notifications and indications. The customer might ask a presentation for a sold evil from a server. The server can afterwards send a value to a customer whenever it becomes available. For instance, a heat sensor server might forewarn a customer each time it takes a measurement. This avoids a need for a customer to check a server, that would need a server’s radio electronics to be constantly operational.

An indication is identical to a notification, solely that it requires a response from a client, as acknowledgment that it has perceived a message.

Battery impact[edit]

Bluetooth Smart is designed to capacitate inclination with low appetite consumption. Several chipmakers including Cambridge Silicon Radio, Dialog Semiconductor, Nordic Semiconductor, STMicroelectronics, Cypress Semiconductor, and Texas Instruments have introduced their Bluetooth Smart optimized chipsets over a final few years. Devices with marginal and executive roles have opposite appetite requirements. A investigate by guide program company, Aislelabs, reported that peripherals, such as closeness beacons, customarily duty for 1–2 years with a 1,000mAh silver dungeon battery.[37] This is probable since of appetite potency of Bluetooth Smart custom that usually transmits tiny packets as compared to Bluetooth Classic that is also suitable for audio and high bandwidth data.

In contrast, a continual indicate for a same beacons in executive purpose can devour 1,000 mAh in a few hours. Android and iOS inclination also have really opposite battery impact depending on form of scans and series of Bluetooth Smart inclination in a vicinity.[38] With a newer chipsets and advances in software, both Android and iOS phones now have immaterial appetite expenditure in real-life Bluetooth Smart use scenarios.[39]

Further reading[edit]

GATT is described in full in Volume 3, Part G of a Bluetooth 4.0 Core Specification.

See also[edit]

  • ANT and ANT+
  • DASH7
  • Eddystone (Google)
  • IEEE 802.15 / IEEE 802.15.4-2006
  • iBeacon
  • Indoor positioning complement (IPS)
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • MyriaNed
  • Ultra wideband (UWB)
  • UWB Forum
  • WiMedia Alliance
  • WirelessHD
  • Wireless USB
  • ZigBee
  • Z-wave

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bluetooth Smart or Version 4.0+ of a Bluetooth specification
  2. ^ beacons
  3. ^ bluetooth.com: Bluetooth Smart
  4. ^ HowStuffWorks.com: Wibree
  5. ^ a b “Mobile Telephony Market”. Bluetooth Special Interest Group. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  6. ^ “Bluetooth SIG Extends Bluetooth Brand, Introduces Bluetooth Smart Marks” (Press release). Bluetooth SIG. Oct 24, 2011. Archived from the original on Feb 3, 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  7. ^ “Bluetooth Smart Marks FAQ”. Bluetooth SIG. Archived from the original on Jul 24, 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  8. ^ Bluetooth SIG ‘Markets’ pages
  9. ^ The Future of Things, Nokia’s Wibree and a Wireless Zoo]
  10. ^ M. Honkanen, A. Lappetelainen, K. Kivekas, “Low finish prolongation for Bluetooth”, Radio and Wireless Conference, 2004 IEEE, 19–22 Sep 2004
  11. ^ “Mimosa WebSite: Home”. MIMOSA FP6 project. Archived from the original on 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2016-08-18. 
  12. ^ “BlueNRG-MS – Bluetooth Low Energy Network Processor ancillary Bluetooth 4.1 core selection – STMicroelectronics”. www.st.com. Retrieved 2016-08-18. 
  13. ^ “Bluetooth opposition denounced by Nokia”, BBC News, 4 Oct 2006
  14. ^ Wibree Bluetooth press release 12 Jun 2007
  15. ^ “Wibree becomes Ultra low appetite Bluetooth technology”. electronicsweekly.com. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  16. ^ “Bluetooth Low Energy”. Bluetooth.com. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  17. ^ “iPhone 4S claims pretension of initial Bluetooth 4.0 smartphone, prepared to tide information from your cat”. Engadget.com. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  18. ^ Bluetooth SIG Adopted specifications
  19. ^ 9 Jul 2014, theregister.co.uk: New Bluetooth tech lets we control 4 BILLION lightbulbs during once Quote: “…The CSR filigree custom uses Bluetooth low appetite with device-to-device communications to concede one tuber to pronounce to a next…Each tuber has a 128 bit identifier so that it can be addressed away or in a group. Each organisation can have 64,000 bulbs and users can emanate adult to 64,000 groups. One device can be in mixed groups…Samsung is formulation to launch a $20 LED lightbulb that supports a record in a subsequent month or so…”
  20. ^ 25 Feb 2014, csr.com: Game-changing Bluetooth® Smart resolution enables whole home control from a smartphone for a initial time Quote: “…CSR Mesh allows for an roughly total series of Bluetooth Smart enabled inclination to be simply networked together and tranquil directly from a singular smartphone, inscription or PC for a initial time…It will concede consumers to control any Bluetooth Smart enabled device in a home from wherever they are, including lighting, heating, appliances and confidence systems. Crucially for a consumer experience, solutions shaped on a custom don’t need a formidable setup, pairing, or use of an entrance device such as a router…”
  21. ^ Video: CSR Mesh – Putting a smartphone during a centre of a Internet of Things
  22. ^ Casio watch with Bluetooth low appetite profile
  23. ^ Inside iOS 7: iBeacons raise apps’ plcae recognition around Bluetooth LE
  24. ^ Find Me Profile specification
  25. ^ https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/releasenotes/General/WhatsNewIniOS/Articles/iOS5.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP30915195-SW1
  26. ^ Brynte (2014-05-04). “Windows Phone 8.1 for Developers–Introducing Bluetooth LE”. MSDN Blogs. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  27. ^ https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/windows.devices.bluetooth.aspx
  28. ^ http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/connectivity/bluetooth-le.html
  29. ^ http://press.blackberry.com/press/2013/blackberry-supports-bluetooth-smart-ready-to-drive-m2m-applicati.html
  30. ^ Gustavo Padovan (2013-02-22). “The large changes of BlueZ 5”. As a MGMT interface is a usually one to support a new Bluetooth Low Energy devices, BlueZ developers motionless to dump support for a aged interface once MGMT was completed. As a result, we need to be using Linux Kernel 3.4 or newer to use BlueZ 5. 
  31. ^ http://rowebots.com/embedded_system_software/wireless_protocols
  32. ^ Bluetooth Special Interest Group “Bluetooth Low Energy Regulatory Aspects”, Apr 2011
  33. ^ Bluetooth Smart
  34. ^ See for instance Apple’s Core Bluetooth framework
  35. ^ See sec 2.5.1 of a Bluetooth 4.0 Core Specification
  36. ^ “The Hitchhikers Guide to iBeacon Hardware: A Comprehensive Report by Aislelabs”. Aislelabs. 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  37. ^ “How to find a best guide hardware for all from stores to cities”. GigaOM. 2014-10-04. Retrieved 2014-10-11. 
  38. ^ “In terms of battery life, Android inclination are some-more optimized for iBeacons than iPhones”. GigaOM. 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  39. ^ “iBeacon Battery Drain on Apple vs Android: A Technical Report – Aislelabs”. Aislelabs. 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 

External links[edit]

Article source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth_low_energy

2 پاسخ به “Bluetooth low energy”

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

*

code